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Globalization: Progress Or Profiteering?

Http://www.investopedia.com/articles/07/globalization.asp

By Lisa Smith

 

Globalization is the tendency of investment funds and businesses to move beyond domestic and national markets to other markets around the globe, allowing them to become interconnected with different markets. Proponents of globalization say that it helps developing nations "catch up" to industrialized nations much faster, through increased employment and technological advances, and Asian economies are often highlighted as examples of globalization's success.

Critics of globalization say that it weakens national sovereignty and allows rich nations to ship domestic jobs overseas, where labor is much cheaper. What is the real story on globalization? It largely depends on your personal perspective. In this article, we'll examine the issue from both sides.

The View from the Penthouse
For business leaders and members of the economic elite, globalization is good. Cheaper labor overseas enables them to build production facilities in locations where labor and healthcare costs are low, and then sell the finished goods in locations where wages are high. (For related reading, see What Is International Trade?)

Profits soar due to the greatly reduced wages for workers, and Wall Street rewards the big profit gains with higher stock prices. The CEOs of global companies also get credit for the profits. Their rewards are usually generous compensation packages, in which company stock and stock options figure prominently. Institutional investors and wealthy individuals also take home the big gains when stock prices increase.

The View from the Street
But globalization doesn't only affect CEOs and high-net-worth individuals. Competition for jobs stretches far beyond the immediate area in a global marketplace. From technology call centers in India, to automobile manufacturing plants in China, globalization means that workers must compete with job applicants from around the world.

Some of these changes arose because of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).NAFTA sent the jobs of U.S. autoworkers to Mexico, a developing country, where wages are significantly lower than those in the U.S. A few years later, some of those same jobs were relocated to third-world countries in East Asia, where wages are even lower.

In both cases, the auto manufacturers expected U.S. consumers to continue buying those products at U.S. prices. While critics of globalization decry the loss of jobs that globalization can entail for developed countries, those who support globalization argue that the employment and technology that is brought to developing countries helps those populations toward industrialization and the possibility of increased standards of living.

The View from the Middle Ground
In the globalization battleground, outsourcing is a double-edged sword.

On the one hand, low wages in foreign countries enable retailers to sell clothing, cars and other goods at reduced rates in western nations where shopping has become an ingrained part of the culture. This allows companies to increase their profit margins.



At the same time, shoppers save money when they buy these goods, causing some supporters of globalization to argue that while sending jobs overseas tends to lower wages, it may also lower prices at the same time.

Lower-income workers also enjoy some of the benefits of stock price appreciation. Many workers have mutual funds holdings, particularly in their 401(k) plans. When companies outsource jobs and get rewarded with rising share prices, mutual funds with those shares also increase in value.

The Effects of Globalization
The ever-increasing flow of cross-border traffic in terms of money, information, people and technology isn't going to stop.

Some argue that it is a classic situation of the rich get richer while the poor get poorer. While global standards of living have risen overall as industrialization takes root in third-world countries, they have fallen in developed countries. Today, the gap between rich and poor countries is expanding, as is the gap between the rich and poor within these countries.

Homogenization of the world is another result, with the same coffee shop on every corner and the same big-box retailers in seemingly every city in every country. So, while globalization does promote contact and exchange between cultures, it also tends to make them more similar to one another. At the market level, linked global financial markets propel local issues into international problems, such as meltdowns in Southeast Asia and the 1998 Russian debt default.

What Lies Ahead?
Deviation from the status quo on this issue is likely to be minimal. The massive outsourcing of U.S. manufacturing jobs that began decades ago continues today. White collar jobs, such as call center workers, medical technicians and accountants have also joined the outsource parade, leaving many to argue that those profiting from the arrangement have little incentive to change it, while those most impacted by it are virtually powerless.

Politicians have latched onto the idea of the disappearing middle class as a political issue, but none of their income redistribution schemes are likely to have any immediate substantial impact.

The Bottom Line
Public scrutiny of CEO compensation has encouraged business leaders to begin to see that a rising tide doesn't necessarily lift all boats. In many cases, low-wage workers get hurt the most because they don't have transferable skills. The concept of retraining workers is on the radar, but it's easier said than done and decades too late for the American manufacturing industry.

Until a better solution is found, education, flexibility and adaptability are the keys to survival. So far, the only answer that politicians and business leaders agree on is the value of an educated, flexible, adaptable workforce. (At the individual level, you can take action on this issue if you Invest In Yourself With A College Education.)

 

 


Skimming. Answer the questions.

1) What are the two definitions of globalisation in the article? Do they convey the same or different ideas?

2) Make an outline/plan/structure of the article. Sum up the purpose of each part.

 

Reading for detail. Decide if the statements below are True or False.

1) The author mainly considers globalisation from the economic point of view.

2) Opponents of globalisation claim that it encourages outsourcing of production to poorer countries.

3) Despite low labour and healthcare costs in developing countries, relocation of production does not lead to higher profit gains.

4) Globalisation for workers in developing countries means competing for getting a better job.

5) Even proponents of globalisation agree that it does not help developing countries to increase standards of living.

6) As shopping has deeply rooted in the western culture, shoppers spend a lot of money buying goods at expensive prices.

7) Homogenisation means bringing the gap between the rich and the poor and promoting higher standards of living worldwide.

8) The spread of problems in economy all over the world is another effect of globalisation.

9) Only educated, flexible and adaptable employees can cope with the negative effects of globalisation.

 

Answer the questions:

1) What is the view of proponents and critics of globalisation?

2) What are the effects of globalisation in terms of economy/ culture/ financial market?

 

Match the words with their definitions

1) Profiteering   2) Technological advances 3) To enable 4) Outsourcing 5) Double-edged sword 6) Gap 7) Homogenisation 8) Public scrutiny 9) Transferable skills 10) On the radar a) making large profits by charging high prices for things that people need and cannot get anywhere else b) an arrangement in which work is done by people from outside your company c) give an opportunity to do something d) a large difference between things or groups e) progress in technology f) a situation that has both positive and negative aspects g) to be noticed or important; within attention, consideration h) careful examination of something i) skills able to be used in another situation, another company j) making conditions, people, or things the same or similar, often so that the result is boring

 

Use the words from the left-handed column to complete the sentences

1) ______________________ creates competition among low-wage workers in developing countries.

2) The effects of globalisation are the widening ________ between poverty and wealth and ______________ of cultures.

3) Many companies hide their accounts from __________________.

4) Many people believe that globalisation benefits only rich countries to increase their profits, thus, it deals with _______________________.

5) Ecological problems, like the climate change, are always _________________ as they need solving.

6) An important aspect of globalisation is _______________________ which ___________ better standards of living.

7) ____________________ help to make a successful career.

8) Globalisation is a _______________________ as it has both supporters and critics.

 

 

Discuss the questions

  1. How do you understand the title of the article? Explain it in your own words.
  2. Why it outsourcing a double-edged sword?
  3. Why does outsourcing encourage competition for better workplaces in developing countries?
  4. Consider, cities around the world are becoming increasingly more homogenous (think McDonaldĺs, KFC, Coke, sushi, pizza, clubs, shopping malls, etc.) offering inhabitants greater choice and opportunities than they had before globalization. What is your attitude to this homogenisation? Do you see the features of homogenisation in your city/town?
  5. Give an example of transferable skills.

 

Discuss the questions

  1. Is there anything wrong with Starbucks or McDonaldĺs trying to crack the China market and open as many stores there as possible?
  2. Should citizens make efforts to encourage their compatriots to purchase goods made in their own countries (i.e. to purchase American automobiles)?
  3. How must education systems be fundamentally altered to accommodate this new, global market?
  4. List three specific things that we can do to maximize the potential of globalization while minimizing its harmful effects. Respond to the following quote, ôIt has been said that arguing against globalization is like arguing against the laws of gravity." (Kofi Annan)

Discuss the questions

  1. How do you understand the title of the article? Explain it in your own words.
  2. Why it outsourcing a double-edged sword?
  3. Why does outsourcing encourage competition for better workplaces in developing countries?
  4. Consider, cities around the world are becoming increasingly more homogenous (think McDonaldĺs, KFC, Coke, sushi, pizza, clubs, shopping malls, etc.) offering inhabitants greater choice and opportunities than they had before globalization. What is your attitude to this homogenisation? Do you see the features of homogenisation in your city/town?
  5. Give an example of transferable skills.

 

Discuss the questions

  1. How do you understand the title of the article? Explain it in your own words.
  2. Why it outsourcing a double-edged sword?
  3. Why does outsourcing encourage competition for better workplaces in developing countries?
  4. Consider, cities around the world are becoming increasingly more homogenous (think McDonaldĺs, KFC, Coke, sushi, pizza, clubs, shopping malls, etc.) offering inhabitants greater choice and opportunities than they had before globalization. What is your attitude to this homogenisation? Do you see the features of homogenisation in your city/town?
  5. Give an example of transferable skills.

 

Discuss the questions

  1. How do you understand the title of the article? Explain it in your own words.
  2. Why it outsourcing a double-edged sword?
  3. Why does outsourcing encourage competition for better workplaces in developing countries?
  4. Consider, cities around the world are becoming increasingly more homogenous (think McDonaldĺs, KFC, Coke, sushi, pizza, clubs, shopping malls, etc.) offering inhabitants greater choice and opportunities than they had before globalization. What is your attitude to this homogenisation? Do you see the features of homogenisation in your city/town?
  5. Give an example of transferable skills.

 

Discuss the questions

  1. How do you understand the title of the article? Explain it in your own words.
  2. Why it outsourcing a double-edged sword?
  3. Why does outsourcing encourage competition for better workplaces in developing countries?
  4. Consider, cities around the world are becoming increasingly more homogenous (think McDonaldĺs, KFC, Coke, sushi, pizza, clubs, shopping malls, etc.) offering inhabitants greater choice and opportunities than they had before globalization. What is your attitude to this homogenisation? Do you see the features of homogenisation in your city/town?
  5. Give an example of transferable skills.

 

 

Discuss the questions

  1. How do you understand the title of the article? Explain it in your own words.
  2. Why it outsourcing a double-edged sword?
  3. Why does outsourcing encourage competition for better workplaces in developing countries?
  4. Consider, cities around the world are becoming increasingly more homogenous (think McDonaldĺs, KFC, Coke, sushi, pizza, clubs, shopping malls, etc.) offering inhabitants greater choice and opportunities than they had before globalization. What is your attitude to this homogenisation? Do you see the features of homogenisation in your city/town?
  5. Give an example of transferable skills.

 

  1. Is there anything wrong with Starbucks or McDonaldĺs trying to crack the China market and open as many stores there as possible?
  2. Should citizens make efforts to encourage their compatriots to purchase goods made in their own countries (i.e. to purchase American automobiles)?
  3. How must education systems be fundamentally altered to accommodate this new, global market?
  4. List three specific things that we can do to maximize the potential of globalization while minimizing its harmful effects. Respond to the following quote, ôIt has been said that arguing against globalization is like arguing against the laws of gravity." (Kofi Annan)

 

  1. Is there anything wrong with Starbucks or McDonaldĺs trying to crack the China market and open as many stores there as possible?
  2. Should citizens make efforts to encourage their compatriots to purchase goods made in their own countries (i.e. to purchase American automobiles)?
  3. How must education systems be fundamentally altered to accommodate this new, global market?
  4. List three specific things that we can do to maximize the potential of globalization while minimizing its harmful effects. Respond to the following quote, ôIt has been said that arguing against globalization is like arguing against the laws of gravity." (Kofi Annan)

 

 

  1. Is there anything wrong with Starbucks or McDonaldĺs trying to crack the China market and open as many stores there as possible?
  2. Should citizens make efforts to encourage their compatriots to purchase goods made in their own countries (i.e. to purchase American automobiles)?
  3. How must education systems be fundamentally altered to accommodate this new, global market?
  4. List three specific things that we can do to maximize the potential of globalization while minimizing its harmful effects. Respond to the following quote, ôIt has been said that arguing against globalization is like arguing against the laws of gravity." (Kofi Annan)

 

 

  1. Is there anything wrong with Starbucks or McDonaldĺs trying to crack the China market and open as many stores there as possible?
  2. Should citizens make efforts to encourage their compatriots to purchase goods made in their own countries (i.e. to purchase American automobiles)?
  3. How must education systems be fundamentally altered to accommodate this new, global market?
  4. List three specific things that we can do to maximize the potential of globalization while minimizing its harmful effects. Respond to the following quote, ôIt has been said that arguing against globalization is like arguing against the laws of gravity." (Kofi Annan)

 

 

  1. Is there anything wrong with Starbucks or McDonaldĺs trying to crack the China market and open as many stores there as possible?
  2. Should citizens make efforts to encourage their compatriots to purchase goods made in their own countries (i.e. to purchase American automobiles)?
  3. How must education systems be fundamentally altered to accommodate this new, global market?
  4. List three specific things that we can do to maximize the potential of globalization while minimizing its harmful effects. Respond to the following quote, ôIt has been said that arguing against globalization is like arguing against the laws of gravity." (Kofi Annan)

 


Date: 2016-04-22; view: 1008


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