The legislature means English law makers. In this country our chief law maker is «The Queen in Parliament». All those responsible for making laws in Parliament, whether they are Members of Parliament in the House of Commons or Peers in the House of Lords swear on oath of allegiance to the Queen on taking office, and all Act of Parliament must receive the Royal Accent – the Queen`s agreement and her signature, before they can become law.
The executive in the Local Authority is formed by the political party which wins the local elections, and has greatest number of councilors on each country or borough council. The local executive is therefore voted in (and can be voted out) by the people.
The national executive is always known as the Government. It is formed from the winning political party at the nationwide General Election. This is the party which has the most members in the House of Commons. These are Members of Parliament. The national executive is therefore also voted in (or out) by people. The leader of that winning party becomes Prime minister. The Government makes the day-to-day decisions about the public life of the country.
The judiciary has vital role in British constitution. Firstly, where there is any dispute about constitutional law, the judges must decide what the law is. Their the most important role, however, is to act as an independent check on the powers of the executive. Only the courts have the authority to stop any individual or body of persons from exceeding their powers, or making improper use of their powers. This is known as preventing an abuse of power. In more recent years the courts have developed a special procedure to enable individuals to challenge decisions by the executive. They can ask the courts to review these decisions, and this procedure of judicial review is the special responsibility of the Administrative court.
We may think of the Queen as being very important, but we do not think of her as being very powerful. We tend to see her as the figurehead of power, and a natural focus of loyalty.
Legislature. The Queen is the part of the legislature – here she is known as «the Queen in Parliament». Laws passed by Parliament can become laws of the land only when she signs her assent to them.
Executive. The Queen is the head of the executive. Government operates in her name. it is the Queen who invites a new Prime Minister to form a Government. The Government Ministers are chosen by the Prime Minister, but they are formally granted their «seals of office» by the Queen, and are called «Ministers of the Crown».
Judiciary. It is in the «name of the Queen» that our system of justice is administered. The sovereign is the «fountain of justice and mercy». All criminal prosecutions are brought in the name of the Queen.
Therefore, although the Queen`s position in the constitution may be a largely ceremonial one, its great importance is that she is uniquely placed to bind together the most powerful bodies in a country under the vow(êëÿòâà) of loyalty to her. They must work together in the Crown`s best interests. These are always considered to be the best interests of a nation as a whole, rather than of the Queen as an individual.