1) When crossing the English Channel from continental Europe to Dover, England, the first sight you see is the famous White Cliffs, of Dover. They are almost 70 million years old and have been in existence since dinosaurs were roamingthe earth. Their characteristic white colour is due to the fact that they are made of chalk. They are believed to grow 15metres every million years and are now around 250metres high.
2) Due to their strategic locationthey have been used to help defendthe coast from invasionthroughout England’s history. During the time of Napoleon, tunnels were dug into the cliffs so that soldiers could attack the invading French armies. These tunnels were used as recently as World War II. There are many shipwrecksto be found in the bays and along the beaches below the cliffs because the sea is exceptionally rough along this stretch of the coast.
3) What’s more, there is plentyto see and do in the surrounding area. You can visit one of Dover’s many spectacular heritage castles or even the Roman fort at nearby Richborough. The White Cliffs themselves are an excellent place for hiking, and offer stunning views of one of the world’s busiest shipping lanes.On a clear day, you can even see the French coastline. A visit to England would not be complete without a stopover at this magnificent natural feature.
9.2. Match the synonyms below with the words in the text.
view (paragraph 1) nice (paragraph 3)
because of (paragraph 1) shoreline (paragraph 3)
shore (paragraph 2) a short stay (paragraph 3)
passes (paragraph 2) place (paragraph 3)
sight (paragraph 3)
9.3. Look through the text White Cliffs of Dover again and tell about:
● its location ● tunnel using ● historical details
● size ● attractions
● remains of ancient animals ● recommendation
9.4. Read the text below and write out geographical terms (e.g. landscape).
The National Parks of Great Britain are a fascinating mosaic of moors, woodland, mountains, marshland, pasture, lakes and coasts. Many are havens for rare species such as red squirrels, wild ponies, orchids and ospreys.
Volcanic eruptions, ice glaciers, farming and gunpowder quarrying have all shaped the landscape over millions of years. Now those living within National Park boundaries are vital in protecting the landscape and helping visitors to enjoy them.
The national parks of England and Walesare areas of relatively undeveloped and scenic landscape. Despite the name, national parks in England and Wales are quite different from those in many other countries, where national parks are owned and managed by the government as a protected community resource, and permanent human communities are not a part of the landscape. In England and Wales. land within a national park remains largely in private ownership. There are currently 12 national parks in England and Wales. Each park is operated by its own National Park Authority and has two purposes:
1) to conserve and enhance the natural beauty, wildlife and cultural heritage of the area, and
2) to promote opportunities for the understanding and enjoyment of the park’s special qualities by the public.
An estimated 110 million people visit the national parks of England and Wales each year. Recreation and tourism bring visitors and funds into the parks, to sustain their conservation efforts and supportthe local population through jobs and businesses. These visitors also bring problems, such as erosion and traffic congestion, and conflicts over the use of the parks’ resources.
9.5. Fill in the gaps with the words from the text above.
9. conservation ……….
10. ………. population
11. traffic ……….
9.6. Find the sentences with the following verbsin the text (activity 9.4) and translate them.
● to enjoy ● to remain ● to visit
● to own ● to conserve ● to bring
● to protect ● to promote ● to support
9.7. Match the words in Awith their synonyms in B.
1. scenic, adj a) to conserve
2. manage, v b) mainly
3. protect, v c) committee
4. permanent, adj d) now
5. largely, adv e) picturesque
6. currently, adv f) to run
7. boundary, n g) charming
8. operate, v h) very important
9. authority, n i) to manage
10. purpose, n j) money
11. opportunity, n k) to support
12. public, n l) temporary
13. fascinating, adj m) border
14. vital, adj n) people
15. funds, n o) aim
16. sustain, v p) chance
9.8. Fill in the comparative or superlative forms of the adjectives in brackets.
I think that the north of Scotland is one of (1)…….. (beautiful) places I’ve ever been to. The water in the lochs is (2)…….. (clear) I’ve ever seen and I believe that it must be the (3)…….. (picturesque) area in the world. Northern Scotland has (4)……… (majestic) mountains in Britain and it’s (5)…….. (green) than anywhere else I’ve been to. The mysterious question of whether or not the “Loch Ness Monster” exists, makes it all (6)…….. (interesting). I certainly can’t think of anywhere else (7)…….. (good) to go for a relaxing break than Scotland.
9.9. Read the text about different National Parks in Great Britain. Compare them and answer the questions after it.