Winston Churchill (1874-1965) Leader of Great Britain during the Second World War, Churchill rallied a nation in leading the opposition to Nazi Germany in 1940. Famous for his speeches and bulldog spirit. Churchill famously stated. ‘We will never surrender’
Princess Diana (1961-1997) married Prince Charles and gained a high profile for her humanitarian work and the support she gave to various charities. After her marriage broke down, she continued to remain in the public limelight until her untimely death, whilst chased by the paparazzi.
William Shakespeare (1564-1616) is the foremost writer and poet of the English language. His plays, such as Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet, and Hamlet have had a huge impact on culture, language and literature around the world.
John Lennon (1940 – 1980) was a key member of the Beatles, writing many songs and being a key personality of the band. After the Beatles broke up in 1970, Lennon continued with a highly successful sol career, until his murder in 1980.
David Beckham (1975-) is a footballer, who is one of England’s most capped players. He won many domestic honours with Manchester United and Real Madrid. He is equally as famous off the pitch due to his show biz lifestyle with his wife Victoria Beckham.
T E Lawrence (1888 – 1935) during the First World War, T.E. Lawrence helped unite the Arabs and led them in opposition to the Ottoman Empire. Lawrence’s inspirational leadership skills made him a global figure.
Jane Austen (1775 – 1817) an English novelist from Hampshire. Jane Austen’s novels included Pride and Prejudice, Mansfield Park and Emma. She is one of the most widely read novelists in the English language.
Charles Dickens (1812-1870) was a Victorian novelist who created some of the most memorable characters in English Literature. Dickens criticised the worst excesses of Victorian society, through novels like Oliver Twist and David Copperfield.
Queen Victoria (1819 – 1901) was Queen of England from 1837 to her death in 1901. During her reign the British Empire spread across the globe. Victoria herself was made Empress of India. She came to epitomise a century.
J.K. Rowling (1965 – ) author of the Harry Potter Series. Rowling became the best selling author of her generation. Her success was global with her books translated into numerous languages. The film series was also a great success and strengthened the Harry Potter brand.
King Henry VIII (1491 – 1547) was England’s most famous and perhaps most notorious King. He had six wives, two of which he executed. Henry VIII also split the Church of England from Rome to enable him to remarry.
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
was a naturalist who wrote ‘On the Origin of Species’ which explained humans evolved from more primitive animal forms in a process known as evolution and natural selection.
Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603) was the daughter of Henry VIII and she took the throne after a period of turmoil. However, her reign proved a stabilising influence, and importantly saw the defeat of the Spanish Armada. During her reign, an increased number of explorations were made to the ‘New World’ in America.
Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727), was an English physicist, mathematician, alchemist, and philosopher. He is widely considered the greatest scientist of all time. His scientific breakthroughs, led to significant increases in our understanding of gravity, optics and mathematics.
Kyiv is the capital of Ukraine. It's one of the oldest cities of Europe. Last year we celebrated the fifteen hundred twenty fourth anniversary of its foundation. There are many places of historic interest in it. Among them there are the Kyivo-Pecherska Lavra, the Golden Gate, the St. Sophias Cathedral and others.
Kyiv is situated on the picturesque banks of the Dnieper river. It is one of the most beautiful cities of Europe. One half of Kyiv's territory is occupied by parks and gardens. The population of Kyiv is about 3 million.
Kyiv is a large political, industrial and cultural centre. Kyiv is a seat of the higher body of state power of Ukraine, the Verkhovna Rada.
Kyiv is a scientific centre. The Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and many research institutes are here. Kyiv's cultural life is rich and varied. There are many theatres, museums, exhibitions in Kyiv.
The national art of Ukraine (paintings, sculpture and drawings) is shown in the Museum of Ukrainian Art.
Kyiv's theatres are well-known not only in our country. The famous National Opera and Ballet Theatre, the Ivan Franko Ukrainian Drama Theatre, the Lesya Ukrainka Russian Drama Theatre and other theatres are greatly appreciated by the Kyivites and the guests of the city.
The most important educational institutions of Ukraine are in Kyiv. The Natiuonal Ukrainian University named after Shevchenko is in the centre of the capital. Just opposite the famous red building of the University there is a fine park well-known to the Kyivites. In the centre of the park there is a nice monument to the great Ukrainian poet, whose name the University bears.
Kyiv is famous for its monuments. The monument to Prince Volodymyr in the picturesque park on the Dnieper hills has become a simbol of the ancient city.
Kyiv is the Hero-City. In the park of Immortal Glory there is an obelisk in honour of those who fell in the battles of the Second World War.
Because of many places of historical interest Kyiv is one of the most exciting cities to visit. A lot of tourists come to Kyiv. The first place, which welcomes them, is Kyiv international airport Borispol. It is built in accordance with the latest world standards.
The central street of the capital is Khreshchatyk. During the Greart Patriotic War it was almost completely destroyed. And it was rebuilt in the post war years. There are many fine buildings in Khreshchatyk. They form the unique architectural ensemble.
6.London is a very old town. It is about two thousand years old.
Now London is one of the biggest cities in the world. Its population is about 8 million people. It's not only a capital of Great Britain, it's a large business and commercial centre. London stands on the Thames.
As an ancient city London has a great number of places of historic interest. They attract tourists from all the world.
London is traditionally divided into four main parts. They are Westminster, the City, the West End and the East End.
Westminster is the historical area in London. Famous monuments and buildings are there. One of the most beautiful places is Westminster Abbey.
Many greatest poets and writers are buried there. Chauser, Dickens, Kipling are among them. Newton and Darwin are buried there too.
Another place which is worth seeing in London is the Tower. In different times this castle was a fortress, a royal palace, a prison. Now it is a museum.
London is rich in famous palaces. Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the Queen. Westminster Palace is the seat of the British Parliament.
The greatest of English churches is St. Paul's Cathedral. It was built by a famous English architect, Sir Christopher Wren.
Trafalgar Square is considered to be the very centre of London. In the middle of it stands the monument to admiral Nelson.
London is famous for its streets and squares as well. Fleet Street is known for the newspaper offices situated there. Regent Street is famous for the richest shops and supermarkets.
Speaking about London it is impossible to say nothing about its museums. The British Museum shows works of art from ancient Asia, Egypt, Rome and Greece side by side with those of Great Britain and other countries.
The U.S.A. is a federal republic of 50 states. Besides the 48 contiguous states that occupy the middle latitudes of the continent, the United States includes the state of Alaska at the north-western extreme of North America and the island state of Hawaii in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The conterminous states are bounded on the north by Canada, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Gulf of Mexico and Mexico and on the west by the Pacific Ocean. The national capital is Washington, which is coextensive with the District of Columbia, the federal capital region created in 1790.
The total area of the United States is 3,679,192 square miles (9,529,063 square kilometres), making it the fourth largest country in the world in area (after Russia, Canada and China). Outlying territories and other politically associated areas in the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea add approximately 4,000 square miles to this figure.
The major characteristic of the United States is probably its great variety. Its physical environment ranges from the Arctic to the subtropical, from the moist rain forest to the arid desert, from the rugged mountain peak to the flat prairie. Although the total population of the United States is large by world standards, its overall population density is relatively low; the country embraces some of the world s largest urban concentrations as well as some of the most extensive areas that are almost devoid of habitation.
The United States contains a highly diverse population; but, unlike a country such as China that largely incorporated indigenous peoples, its diversity has to a great degree come from an immense and sustained global immigration. Probably no other country has a wider range of racial, ethnic and cultural types than does the United States. In addition to the presence of surviving native Americans (including American Indians, Aleuts and Eskimo) and the descendants of Africans taken as slaves to America, the national character has been enriched, tested, and constantly redefined by the tens of millions of immigrants who by and large have gone to America hoping for greater social, political and economic opportunities than they had in the places they left.
8. Washington, the capital of the United States of America, is situated on the Potomac River in the District of Columbia. The district is a piece of land ten miles square and it does not belong to any separate state but to all the states. The district is named in honour of Columbus, the discoverer of America.
The capital owes much to the first President of the USA – George Washington. It was George Washington, who chose the place for the District and laid in 1790 the corner-stone of the Capitol, where Congress sits.
Washington is not the largest city in the USA. It has a population of 900000 people.
Washington is a one-industry city. That industry is government. It does not produce anything except very much scrap paper. Every day 25 railway cars leave Washington loaded with scrap paper. The city main output are laws and government decisions. Besides, Washington is the residence of the President and the Congress of the United States.
The White Hall is the President’s residence. All American presidents except George Washington (the White House was not yet built in his time) have lived in the White Hall. It is a two-storeyed building which was built in 1799.
Not far from the Capitol there is the Washington Monument, which looks like a very big pencil. It rises 160 meters and is hollow inside. A special lift brings visitors to the top in 70 seconds from where they can enjoy a beautiful view of the whole city.
The Jefferson, who was also the author of the Declaration of Independence. The memorial is surrounded by cherry-trees.
The Lincoln Memorial is devoted to the memory of the 16-th president of the USA, the author of Emancipation Proclamation, which gave freedom to Negro slaves in America.
On the other bank of the Potomac lies the Arlington National Cemetery where President Kennedy was buried. American soldiers and officers, who died in World War I and II are buried there too.
Washington is a large scientific and cultural centre. There are five universities, a lot of research institutes, the National Academy of Sciences and the Library of Congress.
Among its well-known buildings is Pentagon, the residence of the US Military department.