A. Stages of medical education and subjects studied
Junior students – first and second year students
Senior students – fourth and fifth year students
Undergraduate – sixth year student
Intern – student specializing in a certain field of medicine
Resident – a person who has received the title of "physician" or another health sciences terminal degree (such as psychology or dentistry) who practices medicine usually in a hospital or clinic
Postgraduate – student studying to write a scientific paper
Preclinical subjects – subjects junior students study (e.g. biology, anatomy, histology)
Clinical subjects – subjects senior students study (e.g. surgery, endocrinology, oncology)
Social subjects – philosophy, economics, history
Practical course – work with patients in out-patient clinics
Transitional year – third year, transition preclinical and clinical subjects
B. Read the text and be ready to do exercises after it.
Medical Education in Russia.
It is well known in Russia that medicine is the most difficult subject to study but lots of people still want to become doctors.
There is a great number of medical schools in Russia. Applicants have to pass successfully the Uniform State Examinations in the Russian language, mathematics, chemistry/biology. When students apply for a place at a medical school they also have to specify what area they want to specialize in - whether he wants to join the faculty of general medicine, preventive medicine, pediatrics, or dentistry or others.
Medical education in Russia is very competitive. There are up to 10 candidates for each place at medical school. Students who fail to enter higher medical school due to the results of their Uniform State Examinations this year can reapply the next year.
Medical education takes six years in Russia. The first two years are preclinical – students study anatomy, physiology, physics, histology and also philosophy. From the beginning of the course they spend one day a week in hospital, where nursing assistants teach students how to take patients' blood, pressure and temperature and to give injections. Students also learn how to talk to patients.
The third year is a transitional year between the preclinical and clinical years. Students learn pathology, pharmacology, general surgery and general medicine. At the end of the third year all students take a six-week practical course. They perform the duties of nurses.
The fourth and the fifth years are clinical. Students have tutorials in the mornings, then see patients and have lectures in the afternoons. They change departments every two or three weeks. After the fourth year students have a practical course lasting eight weeks, during which they work as doctors' assistants at the therapeutical, surgical, obstetric and gynecological, and others departments. After the fifth year they take a six-week practical course in out-patient clinics.
In the sixth year students work on chosen specialization almost as real doctors under the supervision of specialists
All of the lectures, tutorials and time on the wards are compulsory. If students miss one they have to work off these hours during their free time. If they do not they are not allowed to pass the exams. Some exams can be passed only once these are called state exams. Students can have three attempts at other exams.
Upon completion of the sixth year, having passed state examinations, graduates receive their diploma. Having a doctor's diploma, they work under the supervision of experienced specialists in clinics. After one-year internship they receive a certificate of specialization. After qualifying students do one or two years of residency. Postgraduate training which includes three years of research leads after successful defending of one's thesis to a Candidate of Sciences in Medicine Degree.
C. A student’s view
I’ll try to say some words about myself
This year I successfully have passed my Uniform State Examinations and by their results, I was admitted to the North-Western State Medical University. Now I am a first year student. I study at the general medical faculty (preventive medical faculty, stomatological faculty). I study preclinical subjects such as anatomy, biology, chemistry, the Latin language. I also learn English. Every day I have four lessons. They are practical classes and lectures. After the classes, I go home. I am not from Saint-Petersburg and I live in the hostel. In the evening I do my homework for the next day. When I have free time I go for a walk, visit my friends or read books, play computer games, watch TV.
D. Match these activities to the stages of medical education in the Russian Federation
1. Studying preclinical subjects
2. Defending one’s thesis to a Candidate Degree
3. Studying clinical subjects
4. Anatomy, physiology, histology
5. Working as real doctors under the supervision of specialists
6. Specializing in a certain field of medicine
7. Work with patients
8. Transition from preclinical to clinical subjects
E. Complete the sentences
1. Anatomy, biology and histology are …….
2. To pass …… is necessary to enter higher medical school.
3. The third year is a transitional year between ……
4. A six-week practical course in …… is taken by fifth year students.
5. Having received a doctor’s diploma students work in clinics under …..
6. During practical course at the end of the third year students perform the …
7. ….. may be passed only once.
8. Students have …. In the morning.
9. Nursing assistants teach students how …..
10. If students miss lessons they have to ….. at their free time.
F. Are these sentences true or false
1. Before having diplomas students work in clinics.
2. Students who fail at the Uniform State Examinations can reapply in three years.
3. A certificate of specialization is given after one year of internship.
4. During the first two years students study clinical subjects.
5. Applicants must specify the department they want to study at.
6. A degree of Candidate of Sciences in Medicine is given after internship.
7. Senior students study clinical subjects.
8. From the very beginning students are taught how to talk with patients.
9. Histology is a clinical subject.
10. After the fourth year students work as doctors’ assistants.
11. After the fifth year students take a one-week course in out-patient clinics.
12. Six year students specialize in a chosen field of medicine.
13. Medical education is not difficult to study.
14. To enter higher medical school it is not necessary to pass the Uniform State Examinations.
15. During the third years students study both preclinical and clinical subjects
G. Answer the questions to the text
1. Is medicine the most difficult subject to study?
2. What must an applicant do to enter higher medical school?
3. What does an applicant have to specify when entering higher medical school?
4. How long is the medical education in Russia?
5. What are the stages of higher medical education?
6. When do students study preclinical subjects?
7. What are the preclinical subjects?
8. What do nursing assistants teach students?
9. What year is considered to be the transitional and why?
10. What practice do students have after the fourth year?
11. What do the students have to do if they miss lessons?
12. How many times can students pass their exams?
13. When do graduates receive their diploma?
14. Where do students work after receiving doctor’s diploma?
15. What certificate do students get after one year of internship?
16. When do postgraduate defend their thesis?
H. Fill in the gaps with these prepositions where they are necessary
For, in, at, to, on, of, from, under
1. Students take a six-week practical work _____ outpatient clinics.
2. Students can have three attempts _____ exams.
3. To enter higher medical school applicants have to pass Uniform State Examination _____ biology.
4. Students enter _____ higher medical school due to the results of the Uniform State Examinations.
5. Students spend one day _____ a week in the clinics of the hospital.
6. _____ the sixth year students work as doctors.
7. Students work as doctors _____ the supervision of specialists.
8. Students practical classes and lectures _____ the morning.
9. _____ the end of each term students have to pass exams.
10. Lots _____ young people want to enter higher medical school every year.
11. Applying _____ a place at higher medical school applicants have to specify the area they want to specialize in.
12. _____ the very beginning students have practical work in the clinics of the hospital.
13. Sixth year students work _____ chosen specialization.
14. Senior students work as real doctors _____ the supervision of specialists.
15. Students are taught how to talk _____ patients.
I. Match the beginnings and endings of the sentences
1. Medical education is a. transitional between preclinical and clinical years
2. Applicants to the medical higher school have to b. as real doctors under the supervision of specialists
3. Applicants have to specify c. work as doctors’ assistants
4. Medical education is d. preclinical subjects
5. The first year students study e. six years long
6. From the very beginning the students are taught to f. a six-week practical course in outpatient clinics
7. The third year is g. the most difficult subject to study
8. After the fourth year students h. the area they want to specialize in
9. After the fifth year students take i. take patients’ temperature, give injections
10.In the sixth year students work j. pass Uniform State Examinations
J. Put the phrases in the correct order to make sentences
1. a specialized higher medical school The North-Western State Medical University is
2. general practitioners, specialists in preventive medicine and stomatologists
The university trains
3. three faculties The university has
4. six or five years long The course of training at the university is
5. study preclinical subjects The first and second year students
6. study clinical subjects Senior students
7. are preclinical subjects Anatomy, physiology, biology, biochemistry and microbiology
8. are clinical subjects Surgery, gynecology, ophthalmology, oncology
9. have practical work in the clinics of Peter the Great hospital
Beginning from the first year students
10. get diplomas of physician practitioners, physician-hygienists and stomatologists
After the course of training students
L. Basing on the above task try to speak about the training at North-Western State Medical University