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Markers Associated Cancers

Hormones

Human chorionic gonadotropin Trophoblastic tumors, nonseminomatous testicular tumors

Calcitonin Medullary carcinoma of thyroid

Catecholamine and metabolites Pheochromocytoma and related tumors

Ectopic hormones See Paraneoplastic Syndromes in Table 7-12

Oncofetal Antigens

-Fetoprotein Liver cell cancer, nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of testis

Carcinoembryonic antigen Carcinomas of the colon, pancreas, lung, stomach, and heart

Isoenzymes

Prostatic acid phosphatase Prostate cancer

Neuron-specific enolase Small cell cancer of lung, neuroblastoma

Specific Proteins

Immunoglobulins Multiple myeloma and other gammopathies

Prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific membrane antigen Prostate cancer

Mucins and Other Glycoproteins

CA-125 Ovarian cancer

CA-19-9 Colon cancer, pancreatic cancer

CA-15-3 Breast cancer

New Molecular Markers

p53, APC, RAS mutations in stool and serum Colon cancer

p53 and RAS mutations in stool and serum Pancreatic cancer

p53 and RAS mutations in sputum and serum Lung cancer

p53 mutations in urine Bladder cancer

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