Home Random Page



Markers Associated Cancers


Human chorionic gonadotropin Trophoblastic tumors, nonseminomatous testicular tumors

Calcitonin Medullary carcinoma of thyroid

Catecholamine and metabolites Pheochromocytoma and related tumors

Ectopic hormones See Paraneoplastic Syndromes in Table 7-12

Oncofetal Antigens

-Fetoprotein Liver cell cancer, nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of testis

Carcinoembryonic antigen Carcinomas of the colon, pancreas, lung, stomach, and heart


Prostatic acid phosphatase Prostate cancer

Neuron-specific enolase Small cell cancer of lung, neuroblastoma

Specific Proteins

Immunoglobulins Multiple myeloma and other gammopathies

Prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific membrane antigen Prostate cancer

Mucins and Other Glycoproteins

CA-125 Ovarian cancer

CA-19-9 Colon cancer, pancreatic cancer

CA-15-3 Breast cancer

New Molecular Markers

p53, APC, RAS mutations in stool and serum Colon cancer

p53 and RAS mutations in stool and serum Pancreatic cancer

p53 and RAS mutations in sputum and serum Lung cancer

p53 mutations in urine Bladder cancer


1. Parkin DM: Global cancer statistics in the year 2000. Lancet Oncol 2:533, 2001.

2. Pisani P, Bray F, Parkin DM: Estimates of the world-wide prevalence of cancer for 25 sites in the adult population. Int J Cancer 97:72, 2002.

3. Jemal A, et al: Cancer statistics, 2003. CA Cancer J Clin 53:5, 2003.

4. Simmonds MA: Cancer statistics, 2003: further decrease in mortality rate, increase in persons living with cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 53:4, 2003.

5. Willis RA: The Spread of Tumors in the Human Body. London, Butterworth & Co, 1952.

6. Dick JE: Stem cells: self-renewal writ in blood. Nature 423:231, 2003.

7. Al-Hajj M, et al: Prospective identification of tumorigenic breast cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:3983, 2003.

8. Lessard J, Sauvageau G: BMI-1 determines the proliferative capacity of normal and leukaemic stem cells. Nature 423:255, 2003.

9. Dick JE: Breast cancer stem cells revealed. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:3547, 2003.

10. Park IK, et al: BMI-1 is required for maintenance of adult self-renewing haematopoietic stem cells. Nature 423:302, 2003.

11. Padera TP, et al: Lymphatic metastasis in the absence of functional intratumor lymphatics. Science 296:1883, 2002.

12. Couch FJ, Weber BL: Breast cancer. In Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW (eds): The Genetic Basis of Human Cancer, 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill, 2002, p 549–581.

13. Choi SH, Barsky SH, Chang HR: Clinicopathologic analysis of sentinel lymph node mapping in early breast cancer. Breast J 9:153, 2003.

14. Covens A: Sentinel lymph nodes. Cancer 97:2945, 2003.

15. Weir HK, et al: Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2000, featuring the uses of surveillance data for cancer prevention and control. J Natl Cancer Inst 95:1276, 2003.

16. El-Serag HB: Hepatocellular carcinoma: an epidemiologic view. J Clin Gastroenterol 35:S72, 2002.

17. Ghafoor A, et al: Cancer statistics for African Americans. CA Cancer J Clin 52:326, 2002.

18. Brawley OW: Some perspective on black-white cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 52:322, 2002.

19. O'Brien K, et al: Cancer statistics for Hispanics, 2003. CA Cancer J Clin 53:208, 2003.

20. Calle EE, et al: Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. adults. N Engl J Med 348:1625, 2003.

21. Knudson AG: Cancer genetics. Am J Med Genet 111:96, 2002.

22. Narod SA: Modifiers of risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 2:113, 2002.

23. Marsh D, Zori R: Genetic insights into familial cancers—update and recent discoveries. Cancer Lett 181:125, 2002.

24. Muller A, Fishel R: Mismatch repair and the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome (HNPCC). Cancer Invest 20:102, 2002.

25. Wooster R, Weber BL: Breast and ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med 348:2339, 2003.

26. Houghton AN, Polsky D: Focus on melanoma. Cancer Cell 2:275, 2002.

27. King M-C et al: Breast and ovarian cancer risks due to inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Science 302:643, 2003.

28. Levy-Lahad E, Plon SE: A risky business—Assessing breast cancer risk. Science 302:574, 2003.

29. Coussens LM, Werb Z: Inflammation and cancer. Nature 420:860, 2002.

30. Balkwill F, Mantovani A: Inflammation and cancer: back to Virchow? Lancet 357:539, 2001.

31. DuBois RN: Cyclooxygenase-2 and colorectal cancer. Prog Exp Tumor Res 37:124, 2003.

32. Howe LR, Dannenberg AJ: A role for cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Semin Oncol 29:111, 2002.

33. Gale RE: Evaluation of clonality in myeloid stem-cell disorders. Semin Hematol 36:361, 1999.

34. Philipp-Staheli J, Payne SR, Kemp CJ: p27(Kip1): regulation and function of a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor and its misregulation in cancer. Exp Cell Res 264:148, 2001.

35. Loeb LA, Loeb KR, Anderson JP: Multiple mutations and cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:776, 2003.

36. Hanahan D, Weinberg RA: The hallmarks of cancer. Cell 100:57, 2000.

37. Ekholm SV, Reed SI: Regulation of G(1) cyclin-dependent kinases in the mammalian cell cycle. Curr Opin Cell Biol 12:676, 2000.

38. Sherr CJ, McCormick F: The RB and p53 pathways in cancer. Cancer Cell 2:103, 2002.

39. Sherr CJ: The INK4a/ARF network in tumour suppression. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2:731, 2001.

40. Lowe SW, Sherr CJ: Tumor suppression by Ink4a-Arf: progress and puzzles. Curr Opin Genet Dev 13:77, 2003.

41. Roberts JM, Sherr CJ: Bared essentials of CDK2 and cyclin E. Nat Genet 35:9, 2003.

42. Quelle DE, et al: Alternative reading frames of the INK4a tumor suppressor gene encode two unrelated proteins capable of inducing cell cycle arrest. Cell 83:993, 1995.

43. Walworth NC: Cell-cycle checkpoint kinases: checking in on the cell cycle. Curr Opin Cell Biol 12:697, 2000.

44. Bartek J, Lukas J: Mammalian G1 - and S-phase checkpoints in response to DNA damage. Curr Opin Cell Biol 13:738, 2001.

45. Kern SE: Progressive genetic abnormalities in human neoplasia. In Mendelsohn J, Howley PM, Israel MA, et al (eds): The Molecular Basis of Cancer, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 2001, p 41–69.

46. Ponder BA: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. In Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW (eds): The Genetic Basis of Human Cancer, 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill, 2002, p 501–513.

47. Cote GJ, Gagel RF: Lessons learned from the management of a rare genetic cancer. N Engl J Med 349:1566, 2003.

48. Ruco LP, et al: Met protein and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: evidence for a pathogenetic role in tumourigenesis. J Pathol 194:4, 2001.

49. Ritter CA, Arteaga CL: The epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase: a promising therapeutic target in solid tumors. Semin Oncol 30:3, 2003.

50. Maher EA, et al: Malignant glioma: genetics and biology of a grave matter. Genes Dev 15:1311, 2001.

51. Hayes DF, Thor AD: c-erbB-2 in breast cancer: development of a clinically useful marker. Semin Oncol 29:231, 2002.

52. Goldman JM, Melo JV: Chronic myeloid leukemia—advances in biology and new approaches to treatment. N Engl J Med 349:1451, 2003.

53. George S, Desai J: Management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors in the era of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Curr Treat Options Oncol 3:489, 2002.

54. Malumbres M, Barbacid M: RAS oncogenes: the first 30 years. Nat Rev Cancer 3:459, 2003.

55. Minna JD, Roth JA, Gazdar AF: Focus on lung cancer. Cancer Cell 1:49, 2002.

56. Markowitz SD, et al: Focus on colon cancer. Cancer Cell 1:233, 2002.

57. Jaffee EM, et al: Focus on pancreas cancer. Cancer Cell 2:25, 2002.

58. Hingorani SR, Tuveson DA: Ras redux: rethinking how and where Ras acts. Curr Opin Genet Dev 13:6, 2003.

59. Davies H, et al: Mutations of the BRAF gene in human cancer. Nature 417:949, 2002.

60. Pollock PM, et al: High frequency of BRAF mutations in nevi. Nat Genet 33:19, 2003.

61. Cox AD, Der CJ: Ras family signaling: therapeutic targeting. Cancer Biol Ther 1:599, 2002.

62. Kurzrock R, et al: Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemias: from basic mechanisms to molecular therapeutics. Ann Intern Med 138:819, 2003.

63. Sattler M, Griffin JD: Molecular mechanisms of transformation by the BCR-ABL oncogene. Semin Hematol 40:4, 2003.

64. Eisenman RN: Deconstructing myc. Genes Dev 15:2023, 2001.

65. Grandori C, et al: The Myc/Max/Mad network and the transcriptional control of cell behavior. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 16:653, 2000.

66. Shiio Y, et al: Quantitative proteomic analysis of Myc oncoprotein function. EMBO J 21:5088, 2002.

67. Keyomarsi K, et al: Cyclin E and survival in patients with breast cancer. N Engl J Med 347:1566, 2002.

68. Murphy M, Levine AJ: Tumor suppressor genes. In Mendelsohn J, et al (eds): The Molecular Basis of Cancer, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 2001, p 95–114.

69. Knudson AG, Jr.: Retinoblastoma: a prototypic hereditary neoplasm. Semin Oncol 5:57, 1978.

70. Kim W, Kaelin WG: The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein: new insights into oxygen sensing and cancer. Curr Opin Genet Dev 13:55, 2003.

71. Liu MC, Gelmann EP: P53 gene mutations: case study of a clinical marker for solid tumors. Semin Oncol 29:246, 2002.

72. Baselga J, Norton L: Focus on breast cancer. Cancer Cell 1:319, 2002.

73. Frebourg T, et al: Germ-line p53 mutations in 15 families with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Am J Hum Genet 56:608, 1995.

74. Nichols KE, et al: Germ-line p53 mutations predispose to a wide spectrum of early-onset cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10:83, 2001.

75. Onel K, Corden-Cardoc C: MDM2 and prognosis. Mol Cancer Res 2:1, 2004.

76. Shumeli A, Oren M: Regulation of p53 by MDM2: fate is in the numbers. Mol Cell 13(1):4–5.

77. Chresta CM, Hickman JA: Oddball p53 in testicular tumors. Nat Med 2:745, 1996.

78. Biederer C, et al: Replication-selective viruses for cancer therapy. J Mol Med 80:163, 2002.

79. Benard J, Douc-Rasy S, Ahomadegbe JC: TP53 family members and human cancers. Hum Mutat 21:182, 2003.

80. Soussi T: p53 mutations and resistance to chemotherapy: a stab in the back for p73. Bull Cancer 90:383, 2003.

81. Shibata H, et al: Rapid colorectal adenoma formation initiated by conditional targeting of the Apc gene. Science 278:120, 1997.

82. Reya T, et al: A role for Wnt signalling in self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells. Nature 423:409, 2003.

83. van Es JH, Barker N, Clevers H: You wnt some, you lose some: oncogenes in the Wnt signaling pathway. Curr Opin Genet Dev 13:28, 2003.

84. Polakis P: The oncogenic activation of beta-catenin. Curr Opin Genet Dev 9:15, 1999.

85. Wei Y, et al: Activation of -catenin in epithelial and mesenchymal hepatoblastomas. Oncogene 19:498, 2000.

86. Mendelsohn J, et al: Growth factors and their receptors in epithelial malignancies. In Mendelsohn J, et al (eds): The Molecular Basis of Cancer, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 2001, p 137–161.

87. Miyaki M, Kuroki T: Role of Smad4 (DPC4) inactivation in human cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 306:799, 2003.

88. Gutmann DH, Collins FS: Neurofibromatosis 1. In Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW (eds): The Genetic Basis of Human Cancer, 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill, 2002, p 417–437.

89. MacCollin M, Gusella J: Neurofibromatosis 2. In Vogelstein B, Kinzler W (eds): The Genetic Basis of Human Cancer, 2nd ed. New York, McGraw Hill, 2002, p 439–448.

90. Leslie NR, Downes CP: PTEN: the down side of PI 3-kinase signalling. Cell Signal 14:285, 2002.

91. Trotman LC, Pandolfi PP: PTEN and p53: who will get the upper hand? Cancer Cell 3:97, 2003.

92. Haber DA: Wilms tumor. In Vogelstein B, Kinzler W (eds): The Genetic Basis of Human Cancer, 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill, 2002, p 403–415.

93. Hirohashi S, Kanai Y: Cell adhesion system and human cancer morphogenesis. Cancer Sci 94:575, 2003.

94. Narla G, et al: KLF6, a candidate tumor suppressor gene mutated in prostate cancer. Science 294:2563, 2001.

95. Dicker T, Siller G, Saunders N: Molecular and cellular biology of basal cell carcinoma. Australas J Dermatol 43:241, 2002.

96. Evan GI, Vousden KH: Proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis in cancer. Nature 411:342, 2001.

97. Korsmeyer SJ: Programmed cell death and the regulation of homeostasis. Harvey Lect 95:21, 1999.

98. Igney FH, Krammer PH: Death and anti-death: tumour resistance to apoptosis. Nat Rev Cancer 2:277, 2002.

99. Zamzami N, Kroemer G: Apoptosis: mitochondrial membrane permeabilization—the (w)hole story? Curr Biol 13:R71, 2003.

100. Scorrano L, Korsmeyer SJ: Mechanisms of cytochrome c release by proapoptotic BCL-2 family members. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 304:437, 2003.

101. Sax JK, et al: BID regulation by p53 contributes to chemosensitivity. Nat Cell Biol 4:842, 2002.

102. Lawlor MA, Alessi DR: PKB/Akt: a key mediator of cell proliferation, survival and insulin responses? J Cell Sci 114:2903, 2001.

103. Hoeijmakers JH: Genome maintenance mechanisms for preventing cancer. Nature 411:366, 2001.

104. Lynch HT, de la Chapelle A: Hereditary colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 348:919, 2003.

105. Ohmiya N, et al: Germline and somatic mutations in hMSH6 and hMSH3 in gastrointestinal cancers of the microsatellite mutator phenotype. Gene 272:301, 2001.

106. Jiricny J, Marra G: DNA repair defects in colon cancer. Curr Opin Genet Dev 13:61, 2003.

107. Friedberg EC: How nucleotide excision repair protects against cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 1:22, 2001.

108. Levitt NC, Hickson ID: Caretaker tumour suppressor genes that defend genome integrity. Trends Mol Med 8:179, 2002.

109. Hickson ID, et al: Role of the Bloom's syndrome helicase in maintenance of genome stability. Biochem Soc Trans 29:201, 2001.

109A. Livingston DM: EMSY, a BRCA-2 partner in crime. Nature Med 10:127, 2004.

110. Shiloh Y: ATM and related protein kinases: safeguarding genome integrity. Nat Rev Cancer 3:155, 2003.

111. D'Andrea AD: The Fanconi road to cancer. Genes & Dev 17:1933, 2003.

112. Venkitaraman AR: A growing network of cancer-susceptibility genes. N Engl J Med 348:1917, 2003.

113. El-Deiry WS: Transactivation of repair genes by BRCA1. Cancer Biol Ther 1:490, 2002.

114. Howlett NG, et al: Biallelic inactivation of BRCA2 in Fanconi anemia. Science 297:606, 2002.

115. Thorstenson YR, et al: Contributions of ATM mutations to familial breast and ovarian cancer. Cancer Res 63:3325, 2003.

116. Blackburn EH: Switching and signaling at the telomere. Cell 106:661, 2001.

117. Samper E, Flores JM, Blasco MA: Restoration of telomerase activity rescues chromosomal instability and premature aging in Terc-/- mice with short telomeres. EMBO Rep 2:800, 2001.

118. Hiyama E, Hiyama K: Telomerase as tumor marker. Cancer Lett 194:221, 2003.

119. Blasco MA: Telomeres and cancer: a tale with many endings. Curr Opin Genet Dev 13:70, 2003.

120. Folkman J: Role of angiogenesis in tumor growth and metastasis. Semin Oncol 29:15, 2002.

121. Carmeliet P: Angiogenesis in health and disease. Nat Med 9:653, 2003.

122. Jain RK: Molecular regulation of vessel maturation. Nat Med 9:685, 2003.

123. Hendrix MJ, et al: Angiogenesis: vasculogenic mimicry and tumourcell plasticity: lessons from melanoma. Nat Rev Cancer 3:411, 2003.

124. Ferrara N, Gerber HP, LeCouter J: The biology of VEGF and its receptors. Nat Med 9:669, 2003.

125. Bergers G, Benjamin LE: Angiogenesis: tumorigenesis and the angiogenic switch. Nat Rev Cancer 3:401, 2003.

126. Kalluri R: Basement membranes: structure, assembly and role in tumour angiogenesis. Nat Rev Cancer 3:422, 2003.

127. Fidler IJ: The pathogenesis of cancer metastasis: the "seed and soil" hypothesis revisited. Nat Rev Cancer 3:453, 2003.

128. Hynes RO: Metastatic potential: generic predisposition of the primary tumor or rare, metastatic variants—or both? Cell 113:821, 2003.

129. Ramaswamy S, et al: A molecular signature of metastasis in primary solid tumors. Nat Genet 33:49, 2003.

130. Radisky D, Muschler J, Bissell MJ: Order and disorder: the role of extracellular matrix in epithelial cancer. Cancer Invest 20:139, 2002.

131. Bissell MJ, Radisky D: Putting tumours in context. Nat Rev Cancer 1:46, 2001.

132. Lynch CC, Matrisian LM: Matrix metalloproteinases in tumor-host cell communication. Differentiation 70:561, 2002.

133. Ruoslahti E: Specialization of tumour vasculature. Nat Rev Cancer 2:83, 2002.

134. Muller A, et al: Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis. Nature 410:50, 2001.

135. Yu Y, et al: Expression profiling identifies the cytoskeletal organizer ezrin and the developmental homeoprotein six-1 as key metastatic regulators. Nature Med 10:175, 2004.

136. Steeg PS, et al: Metastasis suppressor genes: basic biology and potential clinical use. Clin Breast Cancer 4:51, 2003.

136A. Cunha GR, et al: Role of stromal microenvironment in carcinogenesis of prostate. Int J Cancer 107:1, 2003.

137. Hogarty MD, Brodeur GM: Gene amplification in human cancers: biological and clinical significance. In Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW (eds): The Genetic Basis of Human Cancer, 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill, 2002, p 115–128.

138. Esteller M: Relevance of DNA methylation in the management of cancer. Lancet Oncol 4:351, 2003.

139. Herman JG, Baylin S: Gene silencing in cancer in association with promoter hypermethylation. N Engl J Med 349:2042, 2003.

140. Gaudet F, et al: Induction of tumors in mice by genomic hypomethylation. Science 300:489, 2003.

141. Feinberg AP: Genomic imprinting and cancer. In Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW (eds): The Genetic Basis of Human Cancer, 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill, 2002, p 43–55.

142. Sorlie T, et al: Repeated observation of breast tumor subtypes in independent gene expression data sets. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:8418, 2003.

143. Ross ME, et al: Classification of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia by gene expression profiling. Blood, 2003.

144. Hahn WC, Weinberg RA: Rules for making human tumor cells. N Engl J Med 347:1593, 2002.

145. Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B: Colorectal tumors. In Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW (eds): The Genetic Basis of Human Cancer, 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill, 2002, p 583.

146. Kunkel TA: Considering the cancer consequences of altered DNA polymerase function. Cancer Cell 3:105, 2003.

147. Fidler IJ: Critical determinants of metastasis. Semin Cancer Biol 12:89, 2002.

148. Tennant R: Chemical carcinogenesis. In Franks LM, Teich NM (eds): An Introduction to the Cellular and Molecular Biology of Cancer, 3rd ed. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1997, p 106–125.

149. Perera FP: Environment and cancer: who are susceptible? Science 278:1068, 1997.

150. Vineis P, et al: CYP1A1 T3801 C polymorphism and lung cancer: a pooled analysis of 2451 cases and 3358 controls. Int J Cancer 104:650, 2003.

151. Palli D, et al: Biomarkers of dietary intake of micronutrients modulate DNA adduct levels in healthy adults. Carcinogenesis 24:739, 2003.

152. Mortelmans K, Zeiger E: The Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay. Mutat Res 455:29, 2000.

153. Staib F, et al: TP53 and liver carcinogenesis. Hum Mutat 21:201, 2003.

154. Mansbach JM, et al: Phenobarbital selectively promotes initiated cells with reduced TGF-receptor levels. Carcinogenesis 17:171, 1996.

155. Montesano R, Hall J: Environmental causes of human cancers. Eur J Cancer 37 (Suppl 8):S67, 2001.

156. Hecht SS: Cigarette smoking and lung cancer: chemical mechanisms and approaches to prevention. Lancet Oncol 3:461, 2002.

157. Talaska G: Aromatic amines and human urinary bladder cancer: exposure sources and epidemiology. J Environ Sci Health Part C 21:29, 2003.

158. Preston DL, et al: Radiation effects on breast cancer risk: a pooled analysis of eight cohorts. Radiat Res 158:220, 2002.

159. Cleaver JE, Crowley E: UV damage, DNA repair and skin carcinogenesis. Front Biosci 7:1024, 2002.

160. Friedberg RC: Biological responses to DNA damage: a perspective in the new millennium. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 65:593, 2000.

161. Williams D: Chernobyl, 15 years later, correlation of clinical, epidemiological and molecular outcomes. Ann Endocrinol 64:72, 2003.

162. Neronova E, Slozina N, Nikiforov A: Chromosome alterations in cleanup workers sampled years after the Chernobyl accident. Radiat Res 160:46, 2003.

163. zur Hausen H: Oncogenic DNA viruses. Oncogene 20:7820, 2001.

164. zur Hausen H: Papillomaviruses and cancer: from basic studies to clinical application. Nat Rev Cancer 2:342, 2002.

165. Munger K: Disruption of oncogene/tumor suppressor networks during human carcinogenesis. Cancer Invest 20:71, 2002.

166. Helt AM, Galloway DA: Mechanisms by which DNA tumor virus oncoproteins target the Rb family of pocket proteins. Carcinogenesis 24:159, 2003.

167. Munger K, Howley PM: Human papillomavirus immortalization and transformation functions. Virus Res 89:213, 2002.

168. zur Hausen H: Cervical cancer: papillomavirus and p53. Nature 393:217, 1998.

169. Dolcetti R, Masucci MG: Epstein-Barr virus: induction and control of cell transformation. J Cell Physiol 196:207, 2003.

170. Bornkamm GW, Hammerschimdt W: Molecular virology of Epstein-Barr virus. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 356:437, 2001.

171. Lam N, Sugden B: CD40 and its viral mimic, LMP1: similar means to different ends. Cell Signal 15:9, 2003.

172. Thorley-Lawson DA: Epstein-Barr virus: exploiting the immune system. Nat Rev Immunol 1:75, 2001.

173. Tsao SW, et al: The significance of LMP1 expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Semin Cancer Biol 12:473, 2002.

174. Brennan P: Signalling events regulating lymphoid growth and survival. Semin Cancer Biol 11:415, 2001.

175. Thorley-Lawson DA, Gross A: Mechanism of disease: persistence of Epstein-Barr virus and the origins of associated lymphomas. N Engl J Med 350:1328, 2004.

176. Lindstrom MS, Wiman KG: Role of genetic and epigenetic changes in Burkitt lymphoma. Semin Cancer Biol 12:381, 2002.

177. Raab-Traub N: Epstein-Barr virus in the pathogenesis of NPC. Semin Cancer Biol 12:431, 2002.

178. Chen CJ, Chen DS: Interaction of hepatitis B virus, chemical carcinogen, and genetic susceptibility: multistage hepatocarcinogenesis with multifactorial etiology. Hepatology 36:1046, 2002.

179. Wang XW, et al: Molecular pathogenesis of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Toxicology 181:43, 2002.

180. Barmak K, et al: Human T cell leukemia virus type I-induced disease: pathways to cancer and neurodegeneration. Virology 308:1, 2003.

181. Mortreux F, Gabet AS, Wattel E: Molecular and cellular aspects of HTLV-1 associated leukemogenesis in vivo. Leukemia 17:26, 2003.

182. Haoudi A, Semmes OJ: The HTLV-1 tax oncoprotein attenuates DNA damage induced G1 arrest and enhances apoptosis in p53 null cells. Virology 305:229, 2003.

183. Covacci A, Rappuoli R: Helicobacter pylori: after the genomes, back to biology. J Exp Med 197:807, 2003.

184. Du MQ, Isaccson PG: Gastric MALT lymphoma: from aetiology to treatment. Lancet Oncol 3:97, 2002.

185. Burnet FM: The concept of immunological surveillance. Prog Exper Tumor Res 13:1, 1970.

186. Dunn GP, et al: Cancer immunoediting: from immunosurveillance to tumor escape. Nat Immunol 3:991, 2002.

187. Garcia-Lora A, Algarra I, Garrido F: MHC class I antigens, immune surveillance, and tumor immune escape. J Cell Physiol 195:346, 2003.

188. Dunn GP, Old LJ, Schreiber RD: The three Es of cancer immunoediting. Annu Rev Immunol 22, 2004.

189. Coulie PG, Hanagiri T, Takenoyama M: From tumor antigens to immunotherapy. Int J Clin Oncol 6:163, 2001.

190. Pardoll D: Does the immune system see tumors as foreign or self? Annu Rev Immunol 21:807, 2003.

191. Boon T, Van den Eynde B: Tumour immunology. Curr Opin Immunol 15:129, 2003.

192. Castelli C, et al: T-cell recognition of melanoma-associated antigens. J Cell Physiol 182:323, 2000.

193. Barker PA, Salehi A: The MAGE proteins: emerging roles in cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and neurogenetic disease. J Neurosci Res 67:705, 2002.

194. Cerwenka A, Lanier LL: Natural killer cells, viruses and cancer. Nat Rev Immunol 1:41, 2001.

195. Latour S, Veillette A: Molecular and immunological basis of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease. Immunol Rev 192:212, 2003.

196. Strand S, Galle PR: Immune evasion by tumours: involvement of the CD95 (APO-1/Fas) system and its clinical implications. Mol Med Today 4:63, 1998.

197. Hanahan D, Lanzavecchia A, Mihich E: The novel dichotomy of immune interactions with tumors. Cancer Res 63:3005, 2003.

198. Argiles JM, et al: Cancer cachexia: the molecular mechanisms. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 35:405, 2003.

199. Darnell RB, Posner JB: Paraneoplastic syndromes involving the nervous system. N Engl J Med 349:1543, 2003.

200. Mazzone PJ, Arroliga AC: Endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes in lung cancer. Curr Opin Pulm Med 9:313, 2003.

201. Hoey RP, et al: The parathyroid hormone-related protein receptor is expressed in breast cancer bone metastases and promotes autocrine proliferation in breast carcinoma cells. Br J Cancer 88:567, 2003.

202. Swansbury J: Some difficult choices in cytogenetics. Methods Mol Biol 220:245, 2003.

203. Rowland JM: Molecular genetic diagnosis of pediatric cancer: current and emerging methods. Pediatr Clin North Am 49:1415, 2002.

204. Bayani J, Squire JA: Advances in the detection of chromosomal aberrations using spectral karyotyping. Clin Genet 59:65, 2001.

205. Weiss MM, et al: Comparative genomic hybridisation as a supportive tool in diagnostic pathology. J Clin Pathol 56:522, 2003.

206. Louis DN, Pomeroy SL, Cairncross JG: Focus on central nervous system neoplasia. Cancer Cell 1:125, 2002.

207. Sidransky D: Emerging molecular markers of cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 2:210, 2002.

208. Lakhani SR, Ashworth A: Microarray and histopathological analysis of tumours: the future and the past? Nat Rev Cancer 1:151, 2001.

209. Riggins GJ, Morin PJ: Gene expression profiling in cancer. In Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW (eds): The Genetic Basis of Human Cancers, 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill, 2002, p 131– 141.

210. Benes V, Muckenthaler M: Standardization of protocols in cDNA microarray analysis. Trends Biochem Sci 28:244, 2003.

211. Ferrando AA, et al: Gene expression signatures define novel oncogenic pathways in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer Cell 1:75, 2002.

212. Nutt CL, et al: Gene expression-based classification of malignant gliomas correlates better with survival than histological classification. Cancer Res 63:1602, 2003.

213. Ramaswamy S, et al: Multiclass cancer diagnosis using tumor gene expression signatures. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:15149, 2001.

214. van de Vijver MJ, et al: A gene-expression signature as a predictor of survival in breast cancer. N Engl J Med 347:1999, 2002.

215. Wulfkuhle JD, et al: Proteomic approaches to the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of cancer. Adv Exp Med Biol 532:59, 2003


Date: 2016-04-22; view: 1083

<== previous page | next page ==>
Histologic and Cytologic Methods. | NEW AND EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
doclecture.net - lectures - 2014-2024 year. Copyright infringement or personal data (0.018 sec.)