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Referencing System

Referencing is a standardized way of acknowledging the sources of information and ideas that you have used in your document. It is important to avoid plagiarism, to verify quotations and to enable readers to follow up what you have written and locate the cited author’s work. There are many styles which follow the author-date convention, including the American Psychological Association (APA) and the Chicago Manual of Style. For the BA Thesis at Lazarski University, the preferred referencing system is the ‘Harvard Style’.

 

Below is a table which shows how quotes and citations from various sources ought to appear in the text of the thesis, as well as how they should be noted in the bibliography.

 

 

Book

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of book – family name and initials Year of publication, Title of book – italicized, Edition, Publisher, Place of publication.

 

Reference type Example of in-text citation Bibliography example  
Single author Sophisticated searching techniques are important in finding information (Berkman 1994) OR Berkman (1994, p. 25) claimed that … OR Berkman (1994, pp. 30-35) agrees that … Berkman, Robert, 1994. Find It fast: how to uncover expert information on any subject. New York: HarperPerennial.  
2 authors … from an engineering perspective (Cengel & Boles 1994) OR Cengel and Boles (1994) found … Cengel, Y. A., and Boles, M. A., 1994. Thermodynamics: an engineering approach, 2nd ed. London: McGraw Hill.  
3 authors … as previously demonstrated (Reid, Parsons & Green 1989) Reid, D. H., Parsons, M. B. & Green, C. W., 1989. Staff management in human services: behavioral research and application. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.  
4 or more authors … neck pain caused by whiplash (Jull et al. 2008). OR Jull et al. (2008) have argued … Jull, G., Sterling, M., Fallah, D., Treleaven, J. & O'Leary, S., 2008. Whiplash headache and neck pain: research-based directions for physical therapies. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.  
No author … already mentioned (Be, know, do: leadership the Army way 2004). OR In Be, know, do: leadership the Army way (2004) there is an interesting example … Be, know, do: leadership the Army way 2004. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Insert alphabetically into the Bibliography.  
Multiple works by the same author … geology of Queensland’s national parks (Willmott 2004, 2006). Willmott, W. F., 2004. Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of southern Queensland. Brisbane: Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division. Willmott, W. F., 2006. Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of central Queensland, Brisbane: Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division. Order chronologically from in the reference list.
Multiple works by the same author, published in the same year … geographically speaking (Dawkins 1996a, 1996b) Dawkins, R., 1996a. Climbing Mount Improbable. London: Viking. Dawkins, R., 1996b. River out of Eden. London: Phoenix. Order alphabetically by title in the reference list.
Two or more works by different authors … rock formations (Dawkins 1996; Willmott 2004) Dawkins, R., 1996, Climbing Mount Improbable. London: Viking. Willmott, W. F., 2004. Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of southern Queensland. Brisbane: Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division.
Book by an organisation or institution … in the case of an institution (Australian Government Publishing Service 1987) Australian Government Publishing Service, 1987. Commonwealth printing and publishing manual, 2nd ed. Canberra: A.G.P.S.
Different Editions … the meaning of educational research (Pring 2004) Pring, Robert, 2004. Philosophy of educational research, 2nd ed. London: Continuum, London. The edition statement is placed after the title of the work. This is not necessary for a first edition.
Edited book … some findings (Sjostrand 1993) OR … optics defined (Pike & Sarkar 1986) Sjostrand, S. (ed.), 1993. Institutional change: theory and empirical findings. N.Y.: Harper. Pike, E. R. & Sarkar, S. (eds.), 1986, Frontiers in quantum optics. Bristol: Adam Hilger.
Book Series In defining permutation groups Bhattacharjee (1998) … Bhattacharjee, M., 1998. Notes of infinite permutation groups, Lecture notes in mathematics no. 1698. New York: Springer.

 



 

Chapter in a book

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of chapter – family name and initials Year of publication, ‘Title of chapter – in single quotation marks’, in Editor(s) of book (eds), Title of book – italicized, Edition, Publisher, Place of publication, Page numbers.

 

Reference type Example of in-text citation Bibliography example
Chapter in an edited book Bernstein (1995) explained intelligent traffic flows. Bernstein, D., 1995. ‘Transportation planning’, in W. F. Chen (ed.), The civil engineering handbook. Boca Raton: CRC Press, pp. 231-61. Or Bernstein, Darel, 1995. ‘Transportation planning’, in W. F. Chen (ed.), The civil engineering handbook. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 231-61.

 

Conference paper

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of paper – family name and initials Year of publication, ‘Title of paper – in single quotation marks’, Title of published proceedings which may include place held and date(s) – italicized, Publisher, Place of Publication, Page number(s), (viewed date-in-full, URL – if accessed electronically).

 

Reference type Example of in-text citation Bibliography example
Published conference paper Bourassa (1999) emphasized … Bourassa, S., 1999. ‘Effects of child care on young children’, Proceedings of the third annual meeting of the International Society for Child Psychology. Atlanta, Georgia: International Society for Child Psychology, Atlanta, Georgia, 44-46.
Unpublished conference paper … estimating partner change (Bowden and Fairley 1996) Bowden, F. J. & Fairley, C. K., 1996. ‘Endemic STDs in the Northern Territory: estimations of effective rates of partner change’, paper presented to the scientific meeting of the Royal Australian College of Physicians, Darwin, 24-25 June.

 

 

Journal Article

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials Year of publication, ‘Title of journal article – in single quotation marks’, Title of journal – italicised, Volume, Issue or number, Page number(s), (viewed date-in-full, URL – if accessed electronically).

 

Reference type Example of in-text citation Bibliography example
Journal articles Huffman (1996) expanded on the theory … OR … uses for whey protein (Huffman 1996). Huffman, L. M., 1996. ‘Processing whey protein for use as a food ingredient’. Food Technology, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 49-52; [or Food Technology, 50, 2: 49-52].
Electronic journal article with page numbers … changes in resource management (Daniel 2009) Daniel, T. T., 2009. 'Learning from simpler times'. Risk Management, vol. 56, no. 1: 40-44, viewed 30 January 2009, <http://proquest.umi.com/>. For an article retrieved from a database, it is sufficient to give the URL of the database site.
Electronic journal article without page numbers … the discipline of art history (Donahue-Wallace & Chanda 2005) Donahue-Wallace, K. & Chanda, J., 2005. 'A case study in integrating the best practices of face-to-face art history and online teaching'. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, vol. 7, no. 1, viewed 30 January 2009, <http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/2005/1/01/index.asp>.

 

Thesis

Elements of the citation

Author of thesis – family name and initials Year of preparation of thesis, ‘Title of thesis – in single quotation marks’, Award, Institution issuing degree, Location of institution.

 

Reference type Example of in-text citation Bibliography example
Thesis Exelby (1997) described the process … OR … processing gold (Exelby 1997) Exelby, James, 1997. ‘Aspects of gold and mineral liberation’. PhD thesis, Honolulu: Hawaii University. The title is not italicized and is placed in quotation marks.

 

Report

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of report – (person or organization) Year of Publication, Title of report - italicized, Report number (if available), Publisher/ Institution, Place of publication, (viewed date-in-full, URL - if accessed electronically).

 

Reference type Example of in-text citation Bibliography example
Print report … in Queensland waterways (Mortimer & Cox 1999) Mortimer, M. & Cox, M., 1999. Contaminants in mud crabs and sediments from the Maroochy River. Environment technical report no. 25. Brisbane: Queensland Department of the Environment.
Electronic report … young children’s schooling (Rathbun, West & Hausken 2003) Rathbun, A. H., West, J. & Hausken, E. G., 2003. Young children's access to computers in the home and at school in 1999 and 2000, NCES-2003-036. Washington, DC.: National Center for Education Statistics, viewed 4 November 2003, <http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2003/2003036.pdf>.

 

Newspaper and magazine article

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of article – family name and initials Year of publication, ‘Title of article – in single quotation marks’, Title of newspaper – italicized, Day month, Page number(s).

 

Reference type Example of in-text citation Bibliography example
article (print) ... as seen in the move to privatise the railway (Simpson 1997) Simpson, L., 1997. ‘Tasmania’s railway goes private’. Australian Financial Review, 13 October, p. 10.
Newspaper article (web) … government has been blamed for the water shortage (Porteous 2007). Porteous, C., 2007. ‘Rudd blamed for drought’. Courier Mail, 15 August, p. 17, viewed 27 February 2009, <http://global.factiva.com/>. For an article retrieved from a database, it is sufficient to give the URL of the database site.

 

Web page

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of page – (person or organization) Year (page created or revised), Title of page - italicized, description of document (if applicable), name of the sponsor of the page (if applicable), viewed date-in-full, URL.

 

Reference type Example of in-text citation Bibliography example
Web page with author … this agreement (Albanese 2009) Albanese, A., 2009. Fairer compensation for air travellers. Media release, 29 January, Minister for Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government, viewed 30 January 2009, <http://www.minister.infrastructure.gov.au/aa/releases/2009/ January/AA007_2009.htm>.
Web page with corporate or organisational author … in this subject guide (University of Queensland Library 2009) University of Queensland Library, 2009. Mechanical engineering subject guide.University of Queensland Library, viewed 6 February 2009, <http://www.library.uq.edu.au/findits/findit.php?title= Mechanical+Engineering>.
Web page with no date of publication … it has been argued that emotional intelligence is a combination of competencies (Bliss n.d.) Bliss, S.,n.d., The effect of emotional intelligence on a modern organizational leader’s ability to make effective decisions, viewed 10 February 2008, <http://eqi.org/mgtpaper.htm>.

 

Map

Elements of the citation

Issuing body Year of publication, Title of map – italicized, Series (if available), Publisher, Place of publication.

 

Reference type Example of in-text citation Bibliography example
Map … reading this map (Department of Mines and Energy, Queensland 1996) Department of Mines and Energy, Queensland, 1996. Dotswood, Australia 1:100 000 geological series, sheet 8158, Department of Mines and Energy, Queensland, Brisbane.

 

Personal communication

Elements of the citation

Information obtained by interview, telephone call, letter or email should be documented in the text, but should NOT be included in the list of References.

 

Reference type Example of in-text citation Bibliography example
Personal communication When interviewed on 15 June 1995, Dr Peter Jones explained that … OR This was later verbally confirmed (P Jones 1995, pers. comm., 15 June). Do not include in the bibliography

 


Date: 2015-01-11; view: 732


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