Exercise 1. Read and translate the following text. Use the dictionary when necessary. While reading the text: a) pay attention to the adverbs underlined; b) write down all the words with negative meaning. Organize them in three columns: nouns, adjectives/adverbs and verbs.
The Right to Vote
At the age of 18, all citizens have the right to vote in national, state, and local elections. The right to vote is one of the most important rights of every American citizen. It is the way you can most directly affect how the government is run.
Primary Elections.Two separate elections are held in most states. The primary election comes first, before the general election. The primary election is usually held in the spring. It gives voters a chance to choose the candidates from each party who will run for office in the general election.
There are two types of primary elections, the open primary and the closed primary. In the closed primary, only voters who are registered in the party can vote to choose the party's candidates. Most states use the closed primary. Therefore in most states only registered Democrats can vote for Democratic candidates and only registered Republicans can vote for Republican candidates. Those who have registered as independent voters cannot vote in the closed primary.
In the open primary, voters may vote to choose the candidates of either major party, whether or not they belong to that party. They can vote only for the candidates of one party, however.
In most states, the candidate who receives the highest number of votes is the winner of the primary election. The winning candidate does not have to get a majority, or more than 50 percent of the vote. In some states, especially in the
South, the winner must get a majority of the votes. If no candidate receives a majority, there will be a runoff election between the two leading candidates to decide the winner. The winning candidate in the primary election then becomes the party's candidate in the general election.
General Elections. Congress has set the date for the general elections of the President and Congress as the first Tuesday following the first Monday in November. A Presidential election takes place every four years. Congressional elections occur every two years. Most general elections for state officials are also held in November. The President and members of Congress are elected in even-numbered years. Some states elect their state officials in odd-numbered years. But elections are often held at different times in different states.
The American voter faces a great responsibility and privilege of citizenship. The voter must make a choice among the candidates of the various parties. In many local elections, third parties may be strong, or write-in candidates may be well worth considering. Even in national elections, the choice is never simple.
The intelligent voter has studied hard to find the candidate whose views most closely resemble his or her own. The voter has read newspapers and magazines, listened to the candidates on radio and television, and talked about the candidates with other people.
As voters enter the polling place, they may see several neighbors at work. They are acting as inspectors, or poll watchers. Each party has its own poll watchers to see that the elections are conducted fairly.
On Election Day, the polls are always open from early in the morning until evening. In many states, Election Day is a public holiday, so that there is no excuse for failing to vote. In other states, the law provides that all employers must give time off during the day to any employee who needs time to vote.
Exercise 2. Decide whether the following statements are true or false.
1.The primary election and the general election come at the same time.
2. If no candidate receives a majority, two leading candidates must play cards to decide the winner.
3. The polls are usually open on Election Day from 10 a.m. until 15 p.m.
4. The American voter faces a punishment of citizenship.
5. At the age of twenty-one all citizens can vote in national elections.
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions.
1.Who has a right to vote?
2. Why is Election Day a public holiday in many states?