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UNITED NATIONS

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) (article 21, 23, 25, 25, 26, 27, 28)
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was the first international document to articulate inherent dignity of the human person and address rights relating to development, including the right to take part in government; realization of all economic, social and cultural rights that aid the development of personality; fair employment; adequate standard of living; education directed toward development of the human personality; enjoyment of scientific advancement; an international environment and order in which all rights can be realized.

International Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1965) (article 5)
Article 5 of this convention asserts there should be no difference in the level of enjoyment of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights based on race, color or ethnicity. Rights listed pertinent to development are: participation in elections, equal employment and pay, housing, health services and education.

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966) (article 1,6, 7,11,12, 13)
This treaty asserts the right of every person to self-determination in order to develop in all three economic, social and cultural fields. Articles 6 and 7 define the right to employment in order to achieve economic stability. Working conditions should be safe and healthy, and every worker should receive a fair wage to ensure a decent living for him/herself and his/her family. Every person has the right to an adequate standard of living attained by having access to adequate food, housing, clothing and the continual improvement of conditions. To meet food needs states need to improve methods of production, conservation and distribution by using all available technical and scientific information. States should also use available information to more efficiently use natural resources. Every person has the right to the highest attainable level of physical and mental health. Everyone should have access to education, and enjoy the benefits of scientific progress.

Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (1979) (article 3, 7, 10, 11, 13, 14)
The Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, usually abbreviated as CEDAW, states that nations have a responsibility to implement legislation that supports and ensures the development, advancement and equality of women. Women should be equal to men in their ability to participate in elections, policy-making, and holding public office. Women should have access to equal education opportunities, equipping them with the skills to make career choices. Women should have equal employment and enjoyment of benefits. Women should have access to loans and credit and benefit from rural development through participation in planning, access to health care, inclusion in agricultural credit, reform and resettlement schemes, and adequate living conditions.

Declaration on the Right to Development (1986)
This declaration defines the right to development as a living environment in which all fundamental freedoms can be realized through participation, contribution and enjoyment of economic, social, cultural and political development. The right to development gives every person the right to self-determination, participation in formulating polices that encourage development, as well as an equal share of the benefits. Full realization of the development of a state requires international co-operation, with more developed countries aiding less developed countries. In fostering a state in which human rights are implemented and respected, states must actively work to eliminate activity that violates human rights. States must also work to ensure that all people have equal access to education, health services, food, housing, employment and fair wage, and peace and security.



Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) (article 24, 27, 28, 29, 32)
This treaty commits states to providing children with the means to attain the highest possible level of health. States commit to combating disease and malnutrition --major health problems for children-- through provision of nutritious food and clean water. Every child should enjoy a standard of living that promotes his/her physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development. Education should be provided for all children, both general and vocational, to assist each child in realizing his/her own potential and equip children with the skills needed to successfully participate in a free society. Children should be protected from unfair working conditions that limit their formal education and are harmful to development.

Convention (No. 169) concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries (1989) (article 6, 7)
This convention asserts that indigenous people have the right to define their own priorities regarding development that affects their lives, beliefs, institutions, spiritual well-being and lands; as well as maintain control over their own development. Indigenous people have the right to participate and contribute to national and regional development plans that affect them. Indigenous people have the right to continual improvement of living conditions, and continual economic growth. Indigenous people have the right to government study of the impact of development plans on indigenous culture before the implementation of such projects. Indigenous people have the right to protection of their environment.

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (1992)
This declaration introduces environmental conservation as a key element to sustainable development. Development projects must meet the needs of both present and future generations. This means that humans need to have the ability to live "a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature". This declaration also emphasises the importance of poverty eradication as a means to achieve development.


Date: 2015-01-11; view: 917


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