· Decide upon a topic and state the central premise or thesis.
· Relate the theses to prior knowledge.
· Identify key words and names.
· Integrate concepts and state the main topics in your own words.
· Develop questions to organize your search for relevant information.
· Re-explore general resources, if needed.
· Organize information; discard non-pertinent information.
· Write an essay using the source information to support main topics.
· Read your paper.
· Share your essay with others.
· Evaluate the effectiveness through feedback.
· Create a Works Cited Page.
Thus we have analyzed the components of the argument outline, described the process of creating and argumentative essays.
Topic 12. DEBATING
1. What is debating? Types of debates.
2. Debate structure. Participants of the debate.
3. How to get started in debate. Rules for debates.
4. Research and organization of the debate.
5. Constructive speeches.
1. What is debating? Types of debates
A debate is a formal intellectual contest, or, perhaps, like a game, where two or more speakers present their arguments with the intention of persuading one another. A debate is, basically, an argument which determines how change should come about. Debating has strict rules of conduct and quite sophisticated arguing techniques and you will often be in a position where you will have to argue the opposite of what you believe in. Debate is an ultimate mind exercise, a discussion that resolves an issue which will determine whether change is good or bad.
Types of debates
Parliamentary debates are modeled on the British House of Parliament. The Government team consists of a Prime Minister and a Member of the Government. The opposition has a Leader of the Opposition and a Member of the Opposition.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates are called “values” debates which center on the ideas and spirit governing the political, economic, social, moral principles we hold. In LD debates two contestants debate moral issues concerning such topics, as capital punishment, abortion, euthanasia, etc.
Cross-Examination debates are the ones in which affirmative and negative speakers outline the resolution being debated and present arguments either in favor of the change or against it. Each speech – one representing the affirmative position and one representing the negative position – is cross-examined during which the presented evidences are doubted and rejected; the opposition’s ideas are criticized and attacked.
Academic debates are debates of a purely academic nature in colleges and universities. During academic debates participants, who are assigned the “affirmative” or “negative” roles, publicly exchange their ideas on a point of view according to certain rules.