Paralinguistics as a science.
a branch of linguistics studying sound features that accompany speech but do not pertain to language., Paralinguistics studies, for example, loudness of speech, uncodified variations in intonation, the distribution of pauses, and sounds used to fill pauses, such as mmm … in Russian or “hmm …” in English. These may add emphasis or shades of meaning to what people say.
The concept of paralinguistics was introduced in the late 1940’s by the American linguist A. Hill, In a broader interpretation, paralinguistics includes kinesics, the study of the facial expressions and gestures in relation to communication. In addition, paralinguistics is studied for the practical reasons of determining how various speech techniques influence listeners and of identifying emotional states through speech.
18. Paralinguistic peculiarities of Scientific Style.
Publicistic Style as a phonetic style.
The style is often called “oratorial”, because it serves for many kinds of oratorical activities. These performances are used for the purpose of imposing the speaker’s ideas on listeners.
P.S is called volitional and desiderative. Its manifestation can be heard in political, judicial, oratorical speeches, meeting, debates, and sermons.
P.S. speeches are never spontaneous.
The purpose of oratorial exercises is to stimulate, inspire the listeners, to arouse enthusiasm in them, the kinesics’ accompaniment – facial expressions, bodily movements is important component. The proper response of the audience inspires the speaker and stimulates him to deliver an even more successful task.
P.S. speeches usually go smoothly without hesitation devices.
20. Veraieties of Publicistic Style of speech.
21. Publicistic Style in writing and speaking.
22. Style-making prosodic features of Publicistic Style.
Publicistic (oratorical). Phonostylistics characteristics: Loudness enormously increased; pauses are definitely long between the passages; rhythm is properly organized; tones mostly emphatic, especially emotionally underlined semantic centers, in non-final intonational groups falling-rising tones are frequent;
It is marked by its dignified slowness, careful articulation and impressive resonance on the most important communicative centres, and properly rhythmically organization.
The loudness is enormously increased, pauses definitely long between the passages.
P. speakers are usually very enthusiastic about what they say and how they say, so they may go to extremes by enormously increasing the loudness and alternative it with whisper or by pronouncing very long breath groups and suddenly interrupt the phonation by using the rhetorical silence.
23. Paralinguistic peculiarities of Publicistic Style.
Language means of the Publicistic Style.
Declamatory Intonational Style.
26. Varieties of Declamatory Style of speech.
Style-forming features in Declamatory Style.
The prosodic characteristics of Reading Poetry.
Date: 2016-03-03; view: 1926