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XIII. Time words help us to be more aware of time in the sentence. Complete the short passages with the words given in the box. Some of them can be used several times.

For, by, in, now, during, ago, over, before, recently

A. As you know, we first got the idea for the new product a year ___(1) ___ , but ___(2) ___ we could go to market with it, there was a lot of work to do.

___(3) ___ six months the product was in development at our research center. We then ran tests (4) ____ a three-month period. ___(5) ___ that time we also conduct interviews with some of our best customers to find out what they wanted from the product. ____(6) ___ March we were finally ready for the launch.

B. ___(1)___ the past, technology transfer was generally viewed as the transfer of machinery and equipment from the producer to the user, through trade, aid and licensing or foreign direct investment. ___(2)____ it has been shown that such transactions involve technology payments and that technology is embedded in social and political institutions that affect technology absorption. Also, it is ___(3)___ evident that technology can only be absorbed by the recipient country if there is some level of domestic capacity.

C. ___(1)___ the next 15 years, production of ethanol increased from 0.6 billion liters __(2)__ 1975 to 11 billion liters ___(3)___ 1990. ___(4)___ the first phase of the program in 1975–1978, one part of ethanol was added to four parts of gasoline and there was an additional processing stage to remove water from the fuel. ___ (5)___ 1979, production had been streamlined to focus on hydrous ethanol that could be used in cars fuelled entirely by ethanol.

XIV. Match two parts of the sentences and put the verbs in the appropriate tense.

1. When I (be) a student in the late 1970s, a. he (become) fascinated with a common, but previously unexplained, phenomenon.
2. Once the data, or TV signal (be) in the correct format, b. when they (hear) about the new plan.
3. Everyone (complain) strongly c. it (carry) aloft electronics that exhibit high-data transfer.
4. When Doppler (teach) in Prague, d. until the next generation of tilt rotor aircraft (become) available.
5. These upgrades (maintain) the U.S. and NATO tactical airlift capabilities for the next 10 years e. I (use, literally) punch cards.
6. When this huge aircraft (enter) service in 2016, f. the information (code) by the modem.


XV. What do you think the aviation will be like in a hundred years from now? What changes will occur? Use your imagination and make some predictions. These are some topics to think about:

· Kind of fuel

· Design

· Flight conditions

· Duration of flight

You may wish to make comparisons among the past, the present, and the future. Use the phrases given below:

I predict that someday … will …..

In the near future…

In the distant future…

Someday, …

By 2050, there will be …

XVI. Discuss which of these people use a computer in their jobs and why. Use the phrases given below.

· travel agent

· flight attendant

· pilot

· air traffic controller

· aircraft designer

Stating Your Opinion

· In my opinion,

· It appears that

· From my point of view,

· It seems to me that

· I realize / suppose / think / believe


What is a memo? A memo is:

  • a hard-copy (sent on paper) document
  • used for communicating inside an organization
  • usually short
  • contains To, From, Date, Subject Headings and Message sections

Memo does not need to be signed, but sometimes has the sender's name at the bottom to be more friendly, or the sender's full name to be more formal.

There are three basic reasons to write a memo:

  • to persuade action
  • to issue a directive
  • or to provide a report

Date: 2016-03-03; view: 1460

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