II. Scan the text and decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F):
1. Probably the most significant national public celebration is Christmas on 25 April.
2. The Sunset Service is one of the most revered and popular ceremonies that takes place on Anzac Day. The Sunset Service is thought to have originated in the military routine known as the “stand-to.”
3. The lines that follow in Canadian Colonel John McCrae’s poem, “In Flanders Field,” mention, “We shall not sleep, though snowdrops grow. In Flanders fields.” Snowdrops were the first flowers to bloom on the battlefields of Northern France and Belgium despite the bloodshed in the First World War.
4.Australia Day is Australia's national day celebrated on 26 January annually in all states and territories. 26 January was chosen because it is the day of the establishment of the first French settlement at Port Jackson by Captain Arthur Phillip in 1788.
5. Christmas in Australia is a bit of a curiosity. The country is in the southern hemisphere meaning that 25th December falls in mid-summer, rather than in mid-winter like in Europe, the UK and the USA.
6. Christmas has always been such a joyous occasion for some Australians.
7. Boxing Day occurs the day after Christmas, on December 26. The date is also known as St Martin’s Day, celebrating not the first St Martin’s, a disciple of Jesus, but the second St Martin’s who lived around 800 years later and who, apparently was a horse buff.
8. Traditionally, Christmas lunch is a gathering of large family groups who eat roast turkey, ham and vegetables and finish the meal with hot plum pudding, fruit mince tarts and cream or custard.
9. The public holiday of New Year is movable, meaning that if it falls on a Saturday or Sunday, then the following Monday becomes the public holiday.
10. In the nineteenth century, Queen Elizabeth made Boxing Day a formal holiday for all countries of the Commonwealth.
11. Australia, and much of the western world, follows the Gregorian calendar. The date of Easter Sunday is the first Sunday after the first full moon that occurs on or after the March equinox.
12. Schools often cause their holidays to fall around Easter meaning that children and parents will take at least several days away to enjoy the Spring weather.
13. The celebration of Labour Day has its origins in the eight hour day movement, which advocated eight hours for work, eight hours for recreation, and eight hours for rest.
14. In all states and territories except Western Australia, Queen's Birthday is observed on the second Monday in December.
15. The Queen's Birthday weekend and Empire Day, 24 May, were long the traditional times for public fireworks displays in Australia. The tradition has recently been overshadowed by larger New Year's Eve fireworks, as the sale of fireworks to the public was progressively allowed by the states in the 1980s.
III. Read the text aboutProclamation Day in South Australia. Choose the phrase from A to K to fill in the gaps. There is one phrase that you won’t need to use:
Proclamation Day is the name of official or unofficial holidays or other anniversaries which commemorate or mark 1 _____ . In some cases it may be the day of, or the anniversary of, the proclamation of 2 _____ to the throne. The proclamation day may also celebrate the independence of a country, the end of a war, or the ratification of an important treaty.
Proclamation Day in South Australia celebrates the establishment of government in South Australia as a British province. The proclamation was made by Captain John Hindmarsh beside The Old Gum Tree at the present-day suburb of Glenelg North on 28th December 1836. The proclamation specified the same 3 _____ for the local native population as for the settlers. The date 28 December as a public holiday in South Australia was modified to the first otherwise working day after the Christmas Day public holiday (i.e. usually 26 December). Formal ceremonies involving 4 _____ and politicians, followed by public celebrations, continue to be held at the still-extant Old Gum Tree at Glenelg on 28 December.
The proclamation was printed by Robert Thomas (1782–1860), who came from England with his family on the Africaine, arriving at Holdfast Bay on 8 November 1836. Thomas brought with him 5 _____ to reach South Australia. The press was a Stanhope Invenit No. 200, and was on display in the State Library until 2001. It may be surmised that, from the quilled text of the proclamation provided to him by the officials, it was Thomas himself who 6 _____ for print and thus gave rise to the belief that the document was "The Proclamation...of South Australia".
The colonizing fleet consisted of 10 vessels which had gathered at Nepean Bay before being directed to Holdfast Bay. The Africaine was the first to arrive, discharging settlers on 9 November 1836, followed by the Emma, the John Pirie, and the Tam O'Shanter. These deliberately preceded Governor John Hindmarsh on the Buffalo to enable preparations including the printing of the proclamation 7 _____ on 28 December. Thomas's wife Mary (who died in 1875) published The Diary of Mary Thomas, in which she described the journey on the Africaine and the early years in South Australia. An extract from the diary reads:
"About December 20th 1836, we built a rush hut a short distance from our tents for 8 _____ of part of our family... and in this place (about 12 feet square) the first printing in South Australia was produced."
One of the children of Robert and Mary Thomas was a surveyor who assisted Colonel William Light in the survey which led to the founding of the City of Adelaide. Another son, William Kyffin Thomas, 9 _____ the newspaper of the time, The Register, which his parents had set up. William had a son, also called Robert, who became senior proprietor of The Register. He was knighted by King Edward VII in 1909 when President of the first great Press Conference in London. 10 _____ of that king stands prominently outside the South Australian Institute building in North Terrace, Adelaide.