II. Scan the text and decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F):
1. The oldest surviving cultural traditions in Australia—and some of the oldest surviving cultural traditions on earth—are those of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.
2. The arrival of the Americans laid the foundations for Australia's democratic institutions and rule of law, and introduced the long traditions of American literature, Western art and music, and Judeo-Christian ethics and religious outlook to a new continent.
3. During the colonial era, distinctive forms of Australian art, music, language and literature developed through movements like the Heidelberg school of painters and the work of wattle balladeers like Henry Lawson and Banjo Paterson, whose poetry and prose did much to promote an egalitarian Australian outlook
4. Australia's contemporary immigration program has two components: a program for unskilled and family migrants and a humanitarian program for citizens and asylum seekers.
5. Australian stories and legends have a cultural significance independent of their empirical truth or falsehood. This can be seen in the national obsession with the almost mythological portrayal of bushranger Ned Kelly as a mixture of the underdog and Harry Potter.
6. Music is an integral part of Aboriginal culture. The most famous feature of their music is the harp. This wooden instrument, used amongst the Aboriginal tribes of northern Australia, makes a distinctive droning sound and it has been adopted by a wide variety of non-Aboriginal performers.
7. The early Anglo-Celtic immigrants of the 18th and 19th centuries introduced folk ballad traditions which were adapted to Australian themes.
8. Wattle dance is a traditional style of dance from Australia with strong Celtic roots, and influenced country music. It is generally accompanied by such instruments as the fiddle, accordion, concertina and percussion instruments.
9. The visual arts in Australia date as far back as 100,000 years. Ancient Aboriginal rock art can be found throughout the continent
10. Australia's first dedicated film studio, the Limelight Department, was created by The Salvation Army in Melbourne in 1898, and is believed to be the world's third.
11. Contemporary Australian cuisine combines British and indigenous origins with Mediterranean and American influences.
12. The battle against the elements led to the nickname of a member of Australia's working class being the "Aussie battler".
13. One result of the prevalence of the " friendship" culture is that Australian society is stringently anti-hierarchical. Australians are expected to behave with humility and not think of themselves as better than their peers.
14. Australians show support for those who appear to be at a disadvantage even when the undercat is competing against fellow Australians, such as in sporting events.
15. Related to the underdog is the belief in a " unfair go", which is said to be a key part of Australian culture and Australian society. One accepted definition of a " unfair go" in this Australian sense is "a chance, an adequate opportunity, often used to describe a fair and reasonable course of action".
III. Read the text about the traditional indigenous architecture. Choose the phrase from A to K to fill in the gaps. There is one phrase that you won’t need to use:
Traditional Indigenous architecture was domestic - across a range of 1 _____ shelters and residential camps. These varied from temporary windbreaks and wiltjas (shelters) of stringy bark or paper bark to 2 _____ thatched with grass for large families.
The new architecture of the 21st century designed by university-trained Indigenous architects 3 _____ and standing of community life that reflect upon change and identity.
Meriam house of the Torres Strait Islands. Courtesy of Queensland Museum and Aboriginal Environments Research Centre.
The materials of construction varied 4 _____ depending on the availability and supply of materials. In cold regions of southeastern Australia, 5 _____ were built. In South Australia, whale bones were used as a framework for structures. In the Western Desert, tree limbs were used for shelter frames and spinifex for the cladding. In the Lake Eyre region, mud was used with grass 6 _____ The types of construction varied from dome frameworks 7 _____ through spinifex-clad arc-shaped structures, to 8 _____ , and to elongated, egg-shaped, stone-based structures with a timber frame, and pole and platform constructions. Annual base camp structures, whether dome houses in the rainforests of Queensland and Tasmania or stone-based houses in southeastern Australia, were designed for use over many years by the same family groups.
Dome-shaped shelters extended across Australia, serving as 9 _____ for annual base camps. Well-constructed, grass-clad dome structures were used as permanent camps at Crawley on the Swan River, Western Australia. In the Lake Eyre region, South Australia, mud was used with grass to waterproof the dome shelters and 10 _____which were constructed in villages.