II. Scan the text and decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F):
1. Public land makes up the largest part of Australia and can be freehold land or Crown leasehold land, the latter normally being held on long term lease or licence.
2. Prior to the 1970s much of Australia’s trade was held with the European and North American markets. During this period, Australia was also considered as a relatively closed and protectionist economy.
3. Domestically, Australia’s economy can also be characterized by an east/west divide. The eastern part of Australia is home to the majority of Australia’s service and financial industries. It also contains Australia’s capital city Sydney, the heart of Australia’s political and economic policies.
4. Domestically, Australia’s economy can also be characterized by an east/west divide. Western Australia controls the majority of Australia’s natural resources, including iron ore, gold, oil and coal.
5. China is also Australia’s largest source of imports. Major imports from China include clothing, communications equipment, computers, prams, toys, games and sporting goods, furniture and televisions.
6. Along with their relationship with China, Australia holds multiple free trade agreements with numerous other countries such as the US, Singapore, Chile and France.
7. Australia is one of the world’s largest exporters of wool, meat, and barley and a major supplier of sugar, dairy products, fruits, cotton, and rice.
8. Major imports include foodstuff, telecommunications equipment, and crude petroleum oils.
9. Australia was the first country in the world to have a complete system of bank notes made from plastic (polymer). These notes provide much greater security against counterfeiting. They also last ten times as long as conventional paper (fibrous) notes.
10. Many forms of currency were used in the Australian colonies after the arrival of the first European settlers in 1788. In the rough early conditions barter was necessary, and payment in commodities like wheat sometimes replaced money in transactions.
11. The revolutionary polymer notes were first introduced in 1988 with the issue of a commemorative $10 note, marking Australia’s bicentenary by featuring the theme of settlement. The note depicted on one side a young British in body paint, with other elements of British culture.
12. The $1 coin, which replaced the $1 note in 1984, depicts five emus. The standard $1 design, along with the 50, 20, 10 and 5 cent designs, was created by the Queen’s official jeweler, Stuart Devlin.
13. The 5 cent coin depicts an koala, or spiny anteater, the world’s only other egg-laying mammal.
14. Australia’s coins are produced by the Royal Australian Mint, which is located in the nation’s capital, Sydney.
15. In 1988, Australia introduced its first bank note and in 1996, Australia became the first country in the world to have a complete series of bank note.
III. Read this short text about Australia’s economy. Choose the phrase from A to K to fill in the gaps. There is one phrase that you won’t need to use:
Australia is one of the world’s richest countries. It exports 1 _____ to all parts of the world.
Various kinds of raw materials are produced. Many of them, however, lie in dry areas very far away from bigger cities or harbours. Workers must build 2 _____ to the mines, which is a reason why mining is a very expensive industry in Australia. Foreign companies come to Australia to invest money to mine raw materials .
Australia is the world’s Nr. 1 in the production of 3 _____ . It also produces a big quantity of coal, iron ore and nickel. Almost all of the world’s valuable opals are mined in Australia. The country also has much of the world’s uranium 4 _____.
About 60% of Australia is farmland, most of which is used 5 _____ . Farmers can grow wheat in many parts of the country because wheat doesn’t need very much rain . Other products that are produced 6 _____ in the tropical north and fruits like apples, oranges and pears in the south.
Australia is the world’s largest wool producer. Most of it is exported to countries all over the world. Winemaking is a part of the economy that has been growing very quickly. Grapes grow in the southern and south eastern part of the continent and produce 7 _____ .
Not many people work on Australian farms because farmers have many machines to work with. Only about 5 % of the population are farmers, but they produce almost 8 _____ .
Tourism has become very important for the economy of the country. Australia offers many sights like Ayers Rock, the Great Barrier Reef or Sydney Opera House. Because it is so far away from Europe and North America, it costs a lot 9 _____ .
Australia trades goods with many countries. China, Japan and other Asian countries buy Australian farm products like wheat and wool. Raw materials and minerals are also exported to European countries and to the USA. Japan is, however, Australia’s biggest customer. It buys most of the coal, iron ore and bauxite it 10 _____ .