UNIT 63. To ..., for ... and so that ... (purpose)
A. We use to ... to say why somebody does something (= the purpose of an action):
* 'Why did you go out?' 'To post a letter.'
* A friend of mine phoned to invite me to a party.
* We shouted to warn everybody of the danger.
We use to... to say why something exists or why somebody has/wants/needs something:
* This wall is to keep people out of the garden.
* The President has a team of bodyguards to protect him.
* I need a bottle opener to open this bottle.
B. We use to ... to say what can be done or must be done with something:
* It's difficult to find a place to park in the city centre. (= a place where you can park)
* Would you like something to eat?
* Have you got much work to do? (= work that you must do)
* I get lonely if there's nobody to talk to.
Also: money/time/chance/opportunity/energy/courage etc. to (do something):
* They gave us some money to buy some food.
* Do you have much opportunity to practise your English?
* I need a few days to think about your proposal.
C. For ... and to ...
* I'm going to Spain for a holiday.
but I'm going to Spain to learn Spanish. (not 'for learn Spanish', not 'for learning Spanish')
We use for + noun (for a holiday) but to + verb (to learn). Some more examples:
* What would you like for dinner?
but What would you like to eat? (not 'for eat')
* Let's go to the pool for a swim.
but Let's go to the pool to have a swim.
Note that you can say ... for (somebody) to (do something):
* There weren't any chairs for us to sit on, so we had to sit on the floor.
You can use for ~ing to say what the general purpose of a thing is. To... is also possible:
* This knife is only for cutting bread. (or ... to cut bread.)
You can use What ... for? to ask about purpose:
* What is this switch for?
* What did you do that for?
D. So that
Sometimes you have to use so that for purpose. We use so that (not to ...):
i) when the purpose is negative (so that ... won't/wouldn't):
* I hurried so that I wouldn't be late. (= because I didn't want to be late)
* Leave early so that you won't (or don't) miss the bus.
ii) with can and could (so that ... can/could)
* She's learning English so that she can study in Canada.
* We moved to London so that we could visit our friends more often.
iii) when one person does something so that another person does something else:
* I gave her my address so that she could contact me.
* He wore glasses and a false beard so that nobody would recognize him.
63.1 Use a sentence from Box A and a sentence from Box B to make a new sentence.
1. I shouted
2. I had to go to the bank
3. I'm saving money
4. I went into hospital
5. I'm wearing two pullovers
6. I phoned the police station
I want to keep warm
I wanted to report that my car had been stolen
I want to go to Canada
I had to have an operation
I needed to get some money
I wanted to warn people of danger
1. _I shouted to warn people of the danger._
2. I had to go to the bank ---
3. I ---
63.2 Complete these sentences using a suitable verb.
1. The President has a team of bodyguards _to protect_ him.
2. I didn't have enough time --- the newspaper today.
3. I came home by taxi. I didn't have the energy ---
4. 'Would you like something ---?' 'Yes, please. A cup of coffee.'
5. We need a bag --- these things in.
6. There will be a meeting next week --- the problem.
7. I wish we had enough money --- a new car.
8. I saw Helen at the party but we didn't have a chance --- to each other.
9. I need some new clothes. I haven't got anything nice ---
10. They've just passed their exams. They're having a party ---
11. I can't do all this work alone. I need somebody --- me.
63.3 Put in to or for.
1. I'm going to Spain _for_ a holiday.
2. You need a lot of experience --- this job.
3. You need a lot of experience --- do this job.
4. We'll need more time --- make a decision.
5. I went to the dentist --- a check-up.
6. I had to put on my glasses --- read the letter.
7. Do you wear glasses --- reading?
8. I wish we had a garden --- the children --- play in.
63.4 Write sentences with so that.
1. I hurried. I didn't want to be late.
_I hurried so that I wouldn't be late._
2. We wore warm clothes. We didn't want to get cold.
We wore ---
3. The man spoke very slowly. He wanted me to understand what he said.
The man ---
4. I whispered. I didn't want anybody else to here our conversation.
--- nobody ---
5. Please arrive early. We want to be able to start the meeting on time.
6. She locked the door. She didn't want to be disturbed.
7. I slowed down. I wanted the car behind to be able to overtake.
UNIT 64. Adjective + to ...
A. Difficult to understand etc.
Compare sentences a and b:
* Jim doesn't speak very clearly. It is difficult to understand him. (a)
* Jim doesn't speak very clearly. He is difficult to understand. (b)
Sentences a and b have the same meaning. But note that we say:
* He is difficult to understand. (not 'He is difficult to understand him.')
You can use the structures in the box with:
difficult easy hard impossible dangerous safe expensive cheap and a number of other adjectives (for example, nice/interesting/exciting):
* Do you think it is safe to drink this water?
Do you think this water is safe to drink? (not 'to drink it')
* Your writing is awful. It is impossible to read it. (= to read your writing)
Your writing is impossible to read. (not 'to read it')
* I like being with Jill. It's very interesting to talk to her.
Jill is very interesting to talk to. (not 'to talk to her')
You can also use this structure with an adjective + noun:
* This is a difficult question (for me) to answer. (not 'to answer it')
B. (It's) nice (of you) to...
You can use this structure to say what you think of what somebody does:
* It was nice of you to take me to the station. Thank you very much.
You can use many other adjectives in this way. For example:
kind clever sensible mean silly stupid careless unfairV considerate:
* It's silly of Mary to give up her job when she needs the money.
* I think it was very unfair of him to criticise me.
C. (I'm) sorry to ...
You can use this structure to say how somebody reacts to something:
* I was sorry to hear that your father is ill.
You can use many other adjectives in this way. For example:
happy glad pleased delighted sad disappointed surprised amazed astonished relieved:
* Was Tom surprised to see you when you went to see him?
* We were delighted to get your letter last week.
D. The first (person) to know, the next train to arrive
We use to ... after the first/second/third etc. and also after the next, the last, the only:
* If I have any more news, you will be the first (person) to know.
* The next train to arrive at platform 4 will be the 6.50 to Cardiff.
* Everybody was late except me. I was the only one to arrive on time.
E. You can say that something is sure/certain/bound/likely to happen:
* She's very intelligent. She's sure/certain/bound to pass the exam.
* I'm likely to be late home this evening. (= I will probably be late home)
64.1 (Section A) Write these sentences in another way, beginning as shown.
1. It's difficult to understand him.
He _is difficult to understand._
2. It's quite easy to use this machine.
This machine is ---
3. It was very difficult to open the window.
The window ---
4. It's impossible to translate some words.
Some words ---
5. It's not safe to stand on that chair.
That chair ---
6. It's expensive to maintain a car.
64.2 (Section A) Complete the second sentence using the adjective in brackets. Use a/an +adjective + noun + to ... (as in the example).
1. I couldn't answer the question. (difficult) It was _a difficult question to answer._
2. Everybody makes that mistake. (easy)
It's an ---
3. I like living in this place. (nice)
It's a ---
4. We enjoyed watching the game. (good)
It was ---
64.3 (Section B) Make a new sentence beginning It ... Use one of these adjectives each time:
careless considerate kind nice
1. You did my shopping for me.
_It was kind of you to do my shopping for me._
2. You make the same mistake again and again.
3. Don and jenny invited me to stay with them.
4. John made so much noise when I was trying to sleep.
It wasn't very ---
64.4 (Section C) Use the following words to complete these sentences:
sorry/hear glad/hear delighted/get surprised/see
1. We _were delighted to get_ your letter last week.
2.Thank you for your letter. I --- that you're keeping well.
3. We --- Pauline at the party. We didn't expect her to come.
4. I --- that your mother isn't well. I hope she gets well soon.
64.5 (Section D) Complete the second sentence using the words in brackets + to ...
1. Nobody left before me. (the first)
I was _the first person to leave._
2. Everybody else arrived before Paul. (the last)
Paul was the ---
3. Fiona passed the exam. All the other students failed. (the only)
Fiona was ---
4. I complained to the restaurant manager about the service. Another customer had already complained before me. (the second)
I was ---
5. Nell Armstrong walked on the moon in 1969. Nobody had done this before him. (the first)
Neil Armstrong was ---
64.6 (Section E) Complete these sentences using the word in brackets and a suitable verb.
1. Diane is very intelligent. She _is bound to pass_ the exam. (bound)
2. I'm not surprised you're tired. After such a long journey you --- tired. (bound)
3. Tom's got a very bad memory. He --- what you told him. (sure)
4. I don't think you need to take an umbrella. It --- (not likely)
5. The holidays begin this weekend. There --- a lot of traffic on the roads. (likely)
UNIT 65. To ... (afraid to do) and preposition + ~ing (afraid of ~ing)
A. Afraid to (do) and afraid of (do)ing
I am afraid to do something = I don't want to do it because it is dangerous or the result could be bad. We use afraid to do for things we do intentionally:
* A lot of people are afraid to go out at night. (= they don't want to go out because it is dangerous--so they don't go out)
* He was afraid to tell his parents about the broken window. (= he didn't want to tell them because he knew they would be angry)
I am afraid of something happening = it is possible that something bad will happen (for example, an accident). We do not use afraid of ~ing for things we do intentionally:
* The path was icy, so we walked very carefully. We were afraid of falling. (= it was possible that we would fall--not 'we were afraid to fall')
* I don't like dogs. I'm always afraid of being bitten. (not 'afraid to be bitten')
So, you are afraid to do something because you are afraid of something happening as a result:
* I was afraid to go near the dog because I was afraid of being bitten.
B. Interested in (do)ing and interested to (do)
I'm interested in doing something = I'm thinking of doing it, I'd like to do it:
* I'm trying to sell my car but nobody is interested in buying it. (not 'to buy')
We use interested to especially with hear/see/know/read/learn. I was interested to hear it = 'I heard it and it was interesting for me':
* I was interested to hear that Diane has got a new job.
* Ask George for his opinion. I would be interested to know what he thinks. (=it would be interesting for me to know)
This structure is the same as surprised to/delighted to... etc. (see Unit 64C):
* I was surprised to hear that Diane has got a new job.
C. Sorry to (do) and sorry for (do)ing
We usually say sorry to... to apologize when (or just before) we do something:
* I'm sorry to bother you, but I need to talk to you.
We use sorry to (hear/read etc.) to show sympathy with somebody (see Unit 64C):
* I was sorry to hear that Fiona lost her job. (= I was sorry when I heard ...)
You can use sorry for (doing something) to apologize for something you did before:
* (I'm) sorry for shouting at you yesterday. (not 'Sorry to shout ...')
You can also say:
* (I'm) sorry I shouted at you yesterday.
D. Note that we say:
I want to (do)/I'd like to (do) but I'm thinking of (do)ing/I dream of (do)ing
I failed to (do) but I succeeded in (do)ing
I allowed them to (do) but I prevented them from (do)ing
For examples, see Units 53-54 and 61.
65.1 Read the situation and use the words in brackets to write a sentence with afraid.
1. The streets are unsafe at night.
(a lot of people/afraid/go/out) _A lot of people are afraid to go out._
2. We walked very carefully along the icy path.
(we/afraid/fall) _We were afraid of falling._
3. I don't usually carry my passport with me.
4. The sea was very rough.
5. We rushed to the station.
6. In the middle of the film there was a particularly horrifying scene.
7. The glasses were very full, so Jane carried them very carefully.
8. I didn't like the look of the food on my plate.
b (I/afraid/make/myself ill)
65.2 Complete the sentences using one of these verbs:
buy get go hear read start
1. I'm trying to sell my car but nobody is interested _in buying_ it.
2. Julia is interested --- her own business.
3. I was interested --- your letter in the newspaper last week.
4. Bill wants to stay single. He's not interested --- married.
5. You must tell me what you think. I'm always interested --- your opinion.
6. There's a party tonight but I'm not interested ---
65.3 Complete the sentences using the verb in brackets.
1. I'm sorry _for shouting_ at you yesterday. (shout)
2. Sorry --- you but have you got a pen I could borrow? (disturb)
3. Sorry --- late last night. I didn't realize the time. (be)
4. I'm sorry --- what I said yesterday. I didn't really mean it. (say)
5. 'I've just had my exam results. I failed.' 'Oh? I'm sorry --- that.' (hear)
65.4 Complete the sentences using the verb in brackets.
1. a. We wanted _to leave_ the building. (leave)
b. We weren't allowed --- the building. (leave)
c. We were prevented --- the building. (leave)
2. a. Fred failed --- the problem. (solve)
b. Amy succeeded --- the problem. (solve)
3. a. I'm thinking --- away next week. (go)
b. I'm hoping --- away next week. (go)
c. I'm looking forward --- away next week. (go)
d. I'd like --- away next week. (go)
4. a. Mary wanted --- me a drink. (buy)
b. Mary promised --- me a drink. (buy)
c. Mary insisted --- me a drink. (buy)
d. Mary wouldn't dream --- me a drink. (buy)
Date: 2016-03-03; view: 1658
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