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These sentences are about things that often happened in the past. Complete the sentences using

would + one of these verbs: forget shake share walk

1. Whenever Arthur was angry, he would walk out of the room.

2. I used to live next to a railway line. Whenever a train went past, the house ---

3. You could never rely on George. It didn't matter how many times you reminded him to do something, he --- always ---

4. Brenda was always very generous. She didn't have much but she --- what she had with everyone else.


UNIT 41. passive (1) (is done/was done)

A. Study this example:

This house was built in 1930.

'Was built' is passive. Compare active and passive:

Somebody built this house (object) in 1930. (active)

This house (subject) was built in 1930. (passive)

We use an active verb to say what the subject does:

* My grandfather was a builder. He built this house in 1930.

* It's a big company. It employs two hundred people.

We use a passive verb to say what happens to the subject:

* This house is quite old. It was built in 1930.

* Two hundred people are employed by the company.


B. When we use the passive, who or what causes the action is often unknown or unimportant:

* A lot of money was stolen in the robbery. (somebody stole it but we don't know who)

* Is this room cleaned every day? (does somebody clean it?--it's not important who)

If we want to say who does or what causes the action, we use by...

* This house was built by my grandfather.

* Two hundred people are employed by the company.


C. The passive is be (is/was/have been etc.) + the past participle (done/cleaned/seen etc.):

(be) done (be) cleaned (be) seen (be) damaged (be) built etc.

For irregular past participles (done/known/seen etc.), see Appendix 1.

Study the active and passive forms of the present simple and past simple:

Present simple

active: clean(s)/see(s) etc.

Somebody cleans this every day.

passive: am/is/are cleaned/seen etc.

This room is cleaned every day.

* Many accidents are caused by careless driving.

* I'm not often invited to parties.

* How is this word pronounced?

Present simple

active: cleaned/saw etc.

Somebody cleaned this room yesterday.

passive: was/were cleaned/seen etc.

This room was cleaned yesterday.

* We were woken up by a loud noise during the night.

* 'Did you go to the party?' 'No, I wasn't invited.'

* How much money was stolen?




41.1 Complete the sentences using one of these verbs in the correct form:

cause damage hold include invite make overtake show translate write

1. Many accidents _are caused_ by dangerous driving.

2. Cheese --- from milk.

3. The roof of the building --- in a storm a few days ago.

4. There's no need to leave a tip. Service --- in the bill.

5. You --- to the wedding. Why didn't you go?

6. A cinema is a place where films ---

7. In the United States, elections for President --- every four years.

8. Originally the book --- in Spanish and a few years ago it

9. We were driving along quite fast but we --- by lots of other cars.


Write questions using the passive. Some are present and some are past.

1. Ask about the telephone. (when/invent?)

_When was the telephone invented?_

2. Ask about glass. (how/make?) How ---

3. Ask about Australia. (when/discover?)

4. Ask about silver. (what/use for?)

5. Ask about television. (when/invent?)


Date: 2016-03-03; view: 1324

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