Read the situations and complete the dialogues. Use going to.
1. You have decided to write some letters this evening.
FRIEND: Are you going out this evening? You: No, I'm going to write some letters.
2. You are a smoker but you have decided to give it up soon.
FRIEND: Smoking is very bad for you.
YOU: I know. ---
3. You have been offered a job but you have decided not to take it.
FRIEND: I hear you've been offered a job.
YOU: That's right, but ---
4. You are in a restaurant. The food is awful and you've decided to complain.
FRIEND: This food is awful, isn't it?
YOU: Yes, it's disgusting. ---
20.4 What is going to happen in these situations? Use the words in brackets.
1. There are a lot of black clouds in the sky. (rain) It's going to rain.
2. It is 8.30. Jack is leaving his house. He has to be at work at 8.45 but the journey takes 30 minutes. (late) He ---
3. There is a hole in the bottom of the boat. A lot of water is coming in through the hole. (sink) The boat ---
4. Emma is driving. There is very little petrol left in the tank. The nearest petrol station is a long way away. (run out) She ---
20.5 Complete the sentences with was/were going to + one of these verbs:
give up have phone play travel
1. We were going to travel by train but then we decided to go by car instead.
2. We --- tennis yesterday but it rained all day.
3. I --- Jim, but I decided to write him a letter instead.
4. When I last saw Tim, he --- his job but in the end he decided not to.
5. We --- a party last week but some of our friends couldn't come, so we cancelled it.
UNIT 21. Will/shall (1)
A. We use I'll (= I will) when we decide to do something at the time of speaking:
* Oh, I've left the door open. I'll go and shut it.
* 'What would you like to drink?' 'I'll have an orange juice, please.'
* 'Did you phone Ruth?' 'Oh no, I forgot. I'll phone her now.'
You cannot use the present simple (I do/I go etc.) in these sentences:
* I'll go and shut the door. (not 'I go and shut')
We often use I think I'll ... and I don't think I'll ...:
* I feel a bit hungry. I think I'll have something to cat.
* I don't think I'll go out tonight. I'm too tired.
In spoken English the negative of will is usually won't (= will not):
* I can see you're busy, so I won't stay long.
B. Do not use will to talk about what you have already decided or arranged to do (see Units 19-20):
* I'm going on holiday next Saturday. (not 'I'll go')
* Are you working tomorrow? (not 'will you work')
C. We often use will in these situations:
Offering to do something
* That bag looks heavy. I'll help you with it. (not 'I help')
Agreeing to do something
* A: You know that book I lent you. Can I have it back if you've finished with it?
B: Of course. I'll give it to you this afternoon. (not 'I give')
Promising to do something
* Thanks for lending me the money. I'll pay you back on Friday. (not 'I pay')
* I won't tell anyone what happened. I promise.
Asking somebody to do something (Will you ...?)
* Will you please be quiet? I'm trying to concentrate.
* Will you shut the door, please?
You can use won't to say that somebody refuses to do something:
* I've tried to advise her but she won't listen. (= she refuses to listen)
* The car won't start. I wonder what's wrong with it. (= the car 'refuses' to start)
D. Shall I ...? Shall we ...?
Shall is used mostly in the questions shall I ...?/shall we ...?
We use shall I ...?/shall we ...? to ask somebody's opinion (especially in offers or suggestions):
* Shall I open the window? (= do you want me to open the window?)
* I've got no money. What shall I do? (= what do you suggest?)
* 'Shall we go?' 'Just a minute. I'm not ready yet.'
* Where shall we go this evening?
Compare shall I ...? and will you ...?:
* Shall I shut the door? (= do you want me to shut it?)
* Will you shut the door? (= I want you to shut it)
21.1 Complete the sentences with I'll + a suitable verb.
1. I'm too tired to walk home. I think I'll get a taxi.
2. 'It's a bit cold in this room.' 'Is It? --- on the heating then.'
3. 'We haven't got any milk.' 'Oh, haven't we? --- and get some.'
4. 'Do you want me to do the washing-up?' 'No, it's all right. --- it.'
5. 'I don't know how to use this computer.' 'OK, --- you.'
6. 'Would you like tea or coffee? '--- coffee, please.'
7. 'Goodbye! Have a nice holiday.' 'Thanks. --- you a postcard.'
8. Thank you for lending me your camera. --- it back to you on Monday, OK?
9. 'Are you coming with us?' 'No, I think --- here.'
21.2 Read the situations and write sentences with I think I'll ... or I don't think I'll ...
1. It's a bit cold. You decide to close the window. You say: I think I'll close the window.
2. You are feeling tired and it's quite late. You decide to go to bed. You say: I think ---
3. A friend of yours offers you a lift in his car but you decide to walk. You say: Thank you but ---
4. You arranged to play tennis today. Now you decide that you don't want to play. You say: I don't think ---
5. You were going to go swimming. Now you decide that you don't want to go. ---
21.3 Which is correct? (If necessary, study Units 19-20 first.)
1. 'Did you phone Ruth?' 'Oh no, I forgot. _I phone (X)/I'll phone (O)_ her now.' (I'll phone is correct)
2. I can't meet you tomorrow afternoon. _I'm playing (O)/I'll play (X)_ tennis. (I'm playing is correct)
3. _'I meet/I'll meet_ you outside the hotel in half an hour, OK?' 'Yes, that's fine.'
4. 'I need some money.' 'OK, _I'm lending/I'll lend_ you some. How much do you need?'
5. _I'm having/I'll have_ a party next Saturday. I hope you can come.
6. 'Remember to buy a newspaper when you go out.' 'OK. _I don't forget/I won't forget.'_
7. What time _does your train leave/will your train leave_ tomorrow?
8. I asked Sue what happened but she _doesn't tell/won't tell_ me.
9. _'Are you doing/Will you do_ anything tomorrow evening?' 'No, I'm free. Why?'
10. I don't want to go out alone. _Do you come/Will you come_ with me?
11. It's a secret between us. I promise _I don't tell/I won't tell_ anybody.
21.4 What do you say in these situations? Write sentences with shall I ...? or shall we ...?
1. You and a friend want to do something this evening but you don't know what. You ask your friend. What shall we do this evening?
2. You try on a jacket in a shop. You are not sure whether to buy it or not. You ask a friend for advice. --- it?
3. It's Ann's birthday next week. You want to give her a present but you don't know what. You ask a friend for advice. What ---
4. You and a friend are going on holiday together but you haven't decided where. You ask him/her. ---
5. You and a friend are going out. You haven't decided whether to go by car or to walk. You ask him/her ---
6. Your friend wants you to phone later. You don't know what time to phone. You ask him/her ---
UNIT 22. Will/shall (2)
A. We do not use will to say what somebody has already arranged or decided to do in the future:
* Ann is working next week. (not 'Ann will work')
* Are you going to watch television this evening? (not 'will you watch')
For 'I'm working ...' and 'Are you going to ...?, see Units 19-20.
But often, when we talk about the future, we are not talking about what somebody has decided to do. For example:
CHRIS: Do you think Ann will pass the exam?
JOE: Yes, she'll pass easily.
'She'll pass' does not mean 'she has decided to pass'. Joe is saying what he knows or thinks will happen. He is predicting the future.
When we predict a future happening or situation, we use will/won't.
* Jill has been away a long time. When she returns, she'll find a lot of changes.
* 'Where will you be this time next year)' 'I'll be in Japan.'
* That plate is very hot. If you touch it, you'll burn yourself.
* Tom won't pass the examination. He hasn't worked hard enough for it.
* When will you know your exam results?
B. We often use will ('ll) with:
probably: I'll probably be home late this evening.
I expect: I haven't seen Carol today. I expect she'll phone this evening.
(I'm) sure: Don't worry about the exam. I'm sure you'll pass.
(I) think: Do you think Sarah will like the present we bought her?
(I) don't think: I don't think the exam will be very difficult.
I wonder: I wonder what will happen.
After (I) hope, we generally use the present:
* I hope Carol phones this evening.
* I hope it doesn't rain tomorrow.
C. Generally we use will to talk about the future, but sometimes we use will to talk about now. For example:
* Don't phone Ann now. She'll be busy. (= I know she'll be busy now)
D. I shall .../we shall ...
Normally we use shall only with I and we.
You can say I shall or I will (I'll), we shall or we will (we'll):
* I shall be tired this evening. (or I will be ...)
* We shall probably go to Scotland for our holiday. (or We will probably go ...)
In spoken English we normally use I'll and we'll:
* We'll probably go to Scotland.
The negative of shall is shall not or shan't:
* I shan't be here tomorrow. (or I won't be ...)
Do not use shall with he/she/it/you/they:
* She will be very angry. (not 'she shall be')
22.1 Which form of the verb is correct (or more natural) in these sentences? The verbs are underlined.
1. Ann isn't free on Saturday. _She'll work (X)/She's working (O)._ (She's working is correct)
2. _I'll go/I'm going_ to a party tomorrow night. Would you like to come too?
3. I think Jane _will get/is getting_ the job. She has a lot of experience.
4. I can't meet you this evening. A friend of mine _will come/is coming_ to see me.
5. A: Have you decided where to go for your holidays?
B: Yes, _we will go/we are going_ to Italy.
6. There's no need to be afraid of the dog. _It won't hurt/It isn't hurting_ you.
22.2 Complete the sentences with will ('ll) + one of these verbs:
be be come get like look meet pass
1. Don't worry about your exam. I'm sure you I'll pass.
2. Why don't you try on this jacket? It --- nice on you.
3. You must meet George sometime. I think you --- him.
4. It's raining. Don't go out. You --- wet.
5. They've invited me to their house. They --- offended if I don't go.
6. Goodbye. I expect we --- again before long.
7. I've invited Sue to the party but I don't think she ---.
8. I wonder where I --- 20 years from now.
22.3 Put in will ('ll) or won't.
1. Can you wait for me? I won't be very long.
2. There's no need to take an umbrella with you. It --- rain.
3. If you don't eat anything now, you --- be hungry later.
4. I'm sorry about what happened yesterday. It --- happen again.
5. I've got some incredible news! You --- never believe what's happened.
6. Don't ask Margaret for advice. She --- know what to do.
22.4 Where will you be at these times? Write true sentences about yourself. Use one of these:
I'll be ... or I expect I'll be... or I'll probably be ... or I don't know where I'll be. or I'm not sure. I might be ... (For might see Unit 30.)
1. (next Monday evening at 7.45) I'll probably be at home.
or I'm not sure. I might be at the cinema.
or I don't know where I'll be. (etc.)
2. (at 5 o'clock tomorrow morning) ---
3. (at 10.30 tomorrow morning) ---
4. (next Saturday afternoon at 4.15) ---
5. (this time next year) ---
22.5 Write questions using do you think ... will ...? + one of these verbs:
be back cost finish get married happen like rain
1. I've bought Mary a present. Do you think she'll like it?
2. The weather doesn't look very good. Do you ---
3. The meeting is still going on. When do you ---
4. My car needs to be repaired. How much ---
5. Sally and David are in love. Do ---
6. 'I'm going out now.' 'OK. What time ---'
7. The future situation is uncertain. What ---
UNIT 23. I will and I'm going to
A. Future actions
Study the difference between will and going to:
Sue is talking to Helen:
SUE: Let's have a party
HELLEN: That's a great idea. We'll invite lots of people.
will ('ll): We use will when we decide to do something at the time of speaking. The speaker has not decided before. The party is a new idea.
Later that day, Helen meets Dave:
HELLEN: Sue and I have decided to have a party. We're going to invite lots of people.
going to: We use (be) going to when we have already decided to do something. Helen had already decided to Invite lots of people before she spoke to Dave.
* 'George phoned while you were out.' 'OK. I'll phone him back.'
but * 'George phoned while you were out.' 'Yes, I know. I'm going to phone him back.'
* 'Ann is in hospital.' 'Oh really? I didn't know. I'll go and visit her.'
but * 'Ann is in hospital.' 'Yes, I know. I'm going to visit her tomorrow.'
B. Future happenings and situations (predicting the future)
Sometimes there is not much difference between will and going to. For example, you can say:
* I think the weather will be nice later.
* I think the weather is going to be nice later.
When we say 'something is going to happen', we know (or think) this because of the situation now. For example:
* Look at those black clouds. It's going to rain. (not 'it will rain' - we can see the clouds now)
* I feel terrible. I think I'm going to be sick. (not 'I think I'll be sick' - I feel terrible now)
Do not use will in situations like these. (See also Unit 20C.)
In other situations, it is safer to use will:
* Tom will probably arrive at about 8 o'clock.
* I think Ann will like the present we bought for her.
23.1 Complete the sentences using will ('ll) or going to.
1. A: Why are you turning on the television?
B: I'm going to watch the news. (I/watch)
2. A: Oh, I've just realised. I haven't got any money.
B: Haven't you? Well, don't worry. --- you some. (I/lend)
3. A: I've got a headache.
B: Have you? Wait there and --- an aspirin for you. (I/get)
4. A: Why are you filling that bucket with water?
B: --- the car. (I/wash)
5. A: I've decided to repaint this room.
B: Oh, have you? What colour --- it? (you/paint)
6. A: Where are you going? Are you going shopping?
B: Yes, --- something for dinner. (I/buy)
7. A: I don't know how to use this camera.
B: It's quite easy. --- you. (I/show)
8. A: What would you like to eat?
B: --- a sandwich, please. (I/have)
9. A: Did you post that letter for me?
B: Oh, I'm sorry. I completely forgot --- it now. (I/do)
10. A: The ceiling in this room doesn't took very safe, does it?
B: No, it looks as if --- down. (it/fall)
11. A: Has George decided what to do when he leaves school?
B: Oh, yes. Everything is planned. --- a holiday for a few weeks and then --- a computer programming course. (he/have, he/do)
23.2 Read the situations and complete the sentences using will ('ll) or going to.
1. The phone rings and you answer. Somebody wants to speak to Jim.
CALLER: Hello. Can I speak to Jim, please?
YOU: Just a moment. --- him. (I/get)
2. It's a nice day. You've decided to sit in the garden. Before going outside, you tell your friend.
YOU: The weather's too nice to stay indoors. --- in the garden. (I/sit)
FRIEND: That's a good idea. I think --- you. (I/join)
3. Your friend is worried because she has lost an important letter.
YOU: Don't worry about the letter. I'm sure --- it. (you/find)
FRIEND: I hope so.
4. There was a job advertised in the paper recently. At first you were interested but then you decided not to apply.
FRIEND: Have you decided what to do about that job that was advertised?
YOU: Yes, --- for it. (I/not/apply)
5. You and a friend come home very late. Other people in the house are asleep. Your friend is noisy.
You: Shhh! Don't make so much noise. --- everybody up. (you/wake)
6. John has to go to the airport to catch a plane tomorrow morning.
JOHN: Ann, I need somebody to take me to the airport tomorrow morning.
ANN: That's no problem. --- you. (I/take) What time is your flight?
ANN: OK. --- at about 9 o'clock then. (we/leave)
Later that day, Joe offers to take John to the airport.
JOE: John, do you want me to take you to the airport?
JOHN: No thanks, Joe. --- me. (Ann/take)
Date: 2016-03-03; view: 2323