The social axioms of Leung and Bond.
Leung, Bond, Reimel de Carrasquel, Munoz, Hernandez and Murakami (2002) found evidence for the universal existence of five social axioms at the individual level from studies of 41 cultural groups. Social axioms are general beliefs we have of ourselves, about the spiritual world, and about our social and cultural context. In contrast to values axioms are assertions we make between concepts that are used to guide daily living. For example, one assertion is that the meaning of life is found through religious worship. Further work done by Bond, Leung, Au, Tong, Reimel de Carrasquel and Murakami, (2004) demonstrated the cultural level validity of two axioms. Dynamic externality is the attempt by people to outwardly, through beliefs in fate or the Supreme Being, to make sense of external forces and their consequences. This axiom helps people’s psychological mobilization against the tragic problems of life and to deal with environmental difficulties. Cultures that score high on this dimension also tend to be high on conservatism, hierarchy, and collectivism. Societies high on dynamic externality also tend to have less freedom and fewer human rights while aspiring for security and better material resources. Societal cynicism is a form of pessimism and apprehension about the conditions of the world. Beliefs associated with this dimension are for example that life produces malignant outcomes, and that individuals are subject to selfish and powerful others, groups or institutions. These two cultural values and outlooks on the world overlap to some degree and are not completely independent dimensions (Schwartz, 2004). Also, although guides to behavior these psychological dimensions do not always predict behavior, as peoples beliefs do not conform to behavior all the time (Matsumoto, 2006).
Date: 2015-01-11; view: 1174