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XIII. Language Reference

A) Complete the sentences using words from your topical vocabulary to the text (p. VIII).

1. There is a tradition of bearing the … in a special … . This tradition is … by a number of athletes nominated by … . 2. The athletes who take part in the 70-day Olympic … … inspire … … audiences this year. 3. … nominated and chose Stephanie Handojo as … because they were sure the girl will give … to other people with and without disabilities, and because of her … . 4. Stephanie is known for her … …, she won a … … last year in Greece; moreover, she’s been … … … on the piano, and this month she’s … … running as she takes the … through Nottingham, England. 5. She will be accompanied by Alex Eustace who is also … … … as part of the Olympic … … . 6. Stephanie’s pattern shows that all children, regardless of their abilities and circumstances, can … their … when given the right support and assistance. 7. Daniel Bendle has found work as a swim coach and a … for people with and without disabilities. 8. Daniel … … … as an Olympic … because he had a special motivation to run – he was doing it in the memory of his mother. 9. Val Hanover was also chosen as a … because she had become a winner of BBC’s Sports personality of the Year “Unsung Hero Award”; moreover, she is … after three decades[10] of dedicated work with Special Olympic athletes. 10. Val is definitely leaving on a high note, especially after her … … with the Olympic … … .

B) Create a table and complete it with the verb, noun, adjective.

E. g. victory/a victor - victorious
  to score  
  to lose  
a rival/rivalry    
an athlete    
  to tee  
  to judge  
  to run  

XIV. Phrasal Verbs


I. (runs, running, ran [ran ]; run)

1) [no obj.] move at a speed faster than a walk, never having both or all the feet on the ground: at the same time the dog ran across the road | she ran the last few yards, breathing heavily | he hasn’t paid for his drinks-run and catch him

■ run as a sport or for exercise: I run every morning

■ (of an athlete or a racehorse) compete in a race: she ran in the 200 metres | [with obj.] Dave has run 42 marathons

■ [with obj.] enter (a racehorse) for a race

■ (of a batsman) run from one wicket to the other in scoring or attempting to score a run

■ [with obj.] chase (someone) away

■ (of a boat) sail straight and fast directly before the wind

■ (of a migratory fish) go upriver from the sea in order to spawn

2) pass or cause to pass quickly in a particular direction: [no obj., with adverbial of direction]: the rumour ran through the pack of photographers | [with obj. and adverbial of direction]: Helen ran her fingers through her hair

■ [no obj.] move about in a hurried and hectic way: I’ve spent the whole day running round after the kids

■ move or cause to move forcefully or with a particular result: [no obj., with adverbial of direction] the tanker ran aground off the Shetlands | [with obj. and adverbial of direction] a woman ran a pushchair into the back of my legs

■ [with obj.] fail to stop at (a red traffic light)

■ [with obj.] navigate (rapids or a waterfall) in a boat

3) (with reference to a liquid) flow or cause to flow in a specified direction: [no obj., with adverbial of direction]: a small river runs into the sea at one side of the castle | [with obj.]: she ran cold water into a basin

■ [with obj.] cause water to flow over: I ran my hands under the tap

■ [with obj.] fill (a bath) with water: [with two objs]: I’ll run you a nice hot bath

■ [no obj.] (run with) be covered or streaming with (a liquid): his face was running with sweat

■ [no obj.] emit or exude a liquid: she was weeping and her nose was running

■ [no obj.] (of a solid substance) melt and become fluid: it was so hot that the butter ran

■ [no obj.] (of the sea, the tide, or a river) rise higher or flow more quickly: there was still a heavy sea running

■ [no obj.] (of dye or colour in fabric or paper) dissolve and spread when the fabric or paper becomes wet: the red dye ran when the socks were washed

4) extend or cause to extend in a particular direction: [no obj., with adverbial of direction]: cobbled streets run down to a tiny harbour | [with obj. and adverbial of direction]: he ran a wire under the carpet

■ [no obj.] (of a stocking or pair of tights) develop a ladder

5) [no obj.] (of a bus, train, ferry, or other form of transport) make a regular journey on a particular route: buses run into town every half hour

■ [with obj.] put (a form of public transport) in service: the group is drawing up plans to run trains on key routes

■ [with obj. and adverbial of direction] take (someone) somewhere in a car: I’ll run you home

6) [with obj.] be in charge of; manage: Andrea runs her own catering business | [as adj., in combination] (-run): an attractive family-run hotel

■ [no obj., with adverbial] (of a system, organization, or plan) operate or proceed in a particular way: everything’s running according to plan

■ organize, implement, or carry out: we decided to run a series of seminars

■ own, maintain, and use (a vehicle)

7) be in or cause to be in operation; function or cause to function: [no obj] the car runs on unleaded fuel | [with obj.]: the modem must be run off a mains transformer

■ move or cause to move between the spools of a recording machine [with obj]: I ran the tape back

8) [no obj.] continue or be valid or operative for a particular period of time: the course ran for two days | this particular debate will run and run

■ [with adverbial or complement] happen or arrive at the specified time: the programme was running fifteen minutes late

■ (of a play or exhibition) be staged or presented: the play ran at Stratford last year

9) [no obj.] pass into or reach a specified state or level: inflation is running at 11 per cent | [with complement] the decision ran counter to previous government commitments

10) [no obj.] (run in) (of a quality or trait) be common or inherent in members of (a family), especially over several generations: weight problems run in my family

11) [no obj.] stand as a candidate in an election: he announced that he intended to run for President

■ [with obj.] (especially of a political party) sponsor (a candidate) in an election: they ran their first independent candidate at the Bromley by-election

12) publish or be published in a newspaper or magazine: [with obj] the tabloid press ran the story | [no obj.] when the story ran, there was a big to-do

■ [no obj.] (of a piece of writing) have a specified wording: “Tapestries slashed!” ran the dramatic headline

13) [with obj.] bring (goods) into a country illegally and secretly; smuggle: they run drugs for the cocaine cartels

14) [with two objs] cost (someone) (a specified amount): a new photocopier will run us about $1,300 15| provide the wait-and-see game continues until the government runs some ready cash

■ Austral./NZ provide pasture for (sheep or cattle); raise (livestock)

II. 1) an act or spell of running: I usually go for a run in the morning | a cross-country run

■ a running pace: Rory set off at a run

■ an annual mass migration of fish up or down a river: the annual salmon runs

2) a journey accomplished or route taken by a vehicle, aircraft, or boat, especially on a regular basis: the London-Liverpool run

■ a short excursion made in a car: we could take a run out to the country

■ the distance covered in a specified period, especially by a ship: a record run of 398 miles from noon to noon

■ a short flight made by an aircraft on a straight and even course at a constant speed before or while dropping bombs

3) an opportunity or attempt to achieve something: their absence means the Russians will have a clear run at the title

■ a preliminary test of a procedure or system: if you are styling your hair yourself, have a practice run

■ an attempt to secure election to political office: his run for the Republican nomination

4) a continuous spell of a particular situation or condition: he’s had a run of bad luck

■ a continuous series of performances: the play had a long run in the West End

■ a quantity or amount of something produced at one time: a production run of only 150 cars

■ a continuous stretch or length of something: long runs of copper piping

■ a rapid series of musical notes forming a scale

■ a sequence of cards of the same suit

5) (a run on) a widespread and sudden demand for (a commodity) or a widespread trading in (a currency): there's been a big run on nostalgia toys this year

■ a sudden demand for repayment from (a bank) made by a large number of lenders: growing nervousness among investors led to a run on some banks

6) (the run) the average or usual type of person or thing: she stood out from the general run of Tory women

■ the general tendency of something: quite against the run of play, Smith scored an early try

7) a sloping snow-covered course or track used for skiing, bobsleighing, or tobogganing: a ski run

■ a track made or regularly used by a particular animal: a badger run

8) an enclosed area in which domestic animals or birds may run freely in the open: a chicken run

■ (the run of) free and unrestricted use of or access to: her cats were given the run of the house

■ Australian./NZ a large open stretch of land used for pasture or the raising of stock

9) a unit of scoring achieved by hitting the ball so that both batsmen are able to run between the wickets, or awarded in some other circumstances

■ a point scored by the batter returning to home plate after touching the other bases

10) a ladder in stockings or tights

11) a downward trickle of paint or a similar substance when applied too thickly

■ a small stream

12) (the runs) diarrhoea

13) the after part of a ship’s bottom where it rises and narrows towards the stern

III. - be run off one’s feet – to be very busy

- come running - be eager to do what someone wants: he had only to crook his finger and she would come running

- have a run for one’s money - derive reward or enjoyment in return for one’s outlay or efforts

- on the run – trying to escape arrest/capture; moving from place to place

- run before one can walk - attempt something difficult before one has grasped the basic skills

- run dry - (of a well or river) cease to flow or have any water; (of a source or supply) be completely used up

- run an errand - carry out an errand for someone

- run for it - attempt to escape someone or something by running away

- run foul of – a) collide or become entangled with (an obstacle or another vessel): another ship ran foul of us; b) come into conflict with; go against: the act may run foul of data protection legislation

- run the gauntlet - a) to suffer this punishment; b) to endure an onslaught or ordeal, as of criticism

- run someone close – a) almost match the standards or level of achievement of someone else: the Germans ran Argentina close in the 1986 World Cup final; b) almost defeat a person or team in a contest

- run high – a) (of a river) be close to overflowing, with a strong current; b) (of feelings) be intense

- run into the sand – come to nothing

- run its course – complete its natural development without interference

- run low – become depleted; have too little of something

- run a mile – used with reference to a situation regarded as frightening or alarming

- run off at the mouth – talk excessively or indiscreetly

- run someone out of town – force someone to leave a place

- run rings round – outclass or outwit someone very easily

- run riot – a) to behave wildly and without restraint; b) (of plants) to grow rankly or profusely

- run the risk – expose oneself to the possibility of something unpleasant occurring

- run the show – dominate or be in charge of an undertaking or area of activity

- run a temperature – be suffering from a high temperature

- run someone/thing to earth – find someone or something after a long search

- run to ruin – fall into disrepair

- run wild – grow or develop without restraint or discipline

- run with the hare and hunt with the hounds – try to remain on good terms with both sides in a conflict or dispute

IV. – run across – meet or find by chance

- run after - persistently seek to acquire or attain: businesses which have spent years running after the baby boom market; seek the company of (a potential sexual or romantic partner)

- run against – collide with (someone); happen to meet

- run along – go away (used typically to address a child) (Imperative)

- run around with – associate habitually with (someone)

- run at – rush towards (someone) to attack them

- run away – escape from a place, person, or situation

- run away with – (of one’s imagination or emotions) escape the control of: Susan’s imagination was running away with her; to win (a competition, prize) very easily: to run away with the championship

- run something by – tell (someone) about something, especially in order to ascertain their opinion or reaction

- run someone/thing down – a) reduce (or become reduced) in size, numbers, or resources: the government were reviled for running down the welfare state | hardwood stocks in some countries are rapidly running down; b) lose (or cause to lose) power; c) stop (or cause to stop) functioning: the battery has run down

- run someone in – arrest smb

- run something in – prepare the engine of a new car for normal use by driving slowly for a period of time

- run into – collide with; meet smb. by chance; experience (a difficulty, problem)

- run off – to depart in haste; to produce quickly, as copies on a duplicating machine

- run off with – a) to steal; purloin; b) to elope with

- run something off - reproduce copies of a piece of writing on a machine; a) write or recite something quickly and with little effort; b) drain liquid from a container; run off the water that has been standing in the pipes

- run on - continue without stopping; a)go on longer than is expected: the story ran on for months ■ talk incessantly; b) (also run upon) (of a person’s mind or a discussion) be preoccupied or concerned with: my thoughts ran too much on death

- run out – a) (of a supply of something) be used up: our food is about to run out ■ use up one’s supply of something: we’ve run out of petrol ■ become no longer valid: her contract runs out at the end of the year; b) (of rope) be paid out: slowly, he let the cables run out

- run out on – to abandon someone

- run over - a) (of a container or its contents) overflow: the bath's running over; b) exceed (an expected limit): the film ran over schedule and budget

- run through – a) be present in every part of; pervade: a sense of personal loss runs through many of his lyrics; b) use or spend recklessly or rapidly: her husband had long since run through her money; c) go over (something) quickly as a reminder or rehearsal: I’ll just run through the schedule for the weekend

- run to – a) extend to or reach (a specified amount or size): the document ran to almost 100 pages ■ be enough to cover (a particular expense): my income doesn’t run to luxuries like taxis; b) (of a person) show a tendency to or inclination towards: she was tall and running to fat; c) have recourse to (someone) for support: don’t come running to me for a handout

- run something up – a) allow a debt or bill to accumulate: he ran up debts of $153,000 ■ achieve a particular score in a game or match: they ran up 467 runs for the loss of eight wickets b) make something quickly or hurriedly, especially a piece of clothing: I’ll run up a dress for you; c) raise a flag

- run up against – meet (a difficulty or a problem)



Date: 2016-03-03; view: 485

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