Task I. Learn the new words and word combinations:
to deserve attention
a short circuit
to get heated
Task II. Give synonyms to the following verbs.
Example: to operate – to perform, to carry out, to do.
To remove, to place, to get heated, to deserve, to undertake.
Task III. Make up sentences of your own using the following words and word combinations:
1) to remove, heating sparking;
2) to place, rotating machine, solid foundation;
3) conductor, insulation; to get heated;
4) damage, conductor, to remove.
Task IV. Translate into English:
Task V. Read and translate the text.
As a rule electrical equipment operates reliably. Still it does not mean that it deserves no attention. It is necessary to give the equipment frequent inspection, keep it well cleaned, lubricated and repaired. Undue heating, vibration, sparking should be immediately removed.
Heating may be due to overload or to a short circuit between turns, lack of oil in bearings. Vibration may be due to unproved foundation, unbalance in the moving parts of the machine.
Conductors may get heated because of overload or by reason of damage of the insulation of the conductor.
An electrical machine of any kind requires certain conditions under which it may operate reliably: temperature and freedom of access of surrounding air, need for protection against dirt, dust, type and duration of load, etc.
Rotating machines should be placed on solid foundations.
Conductors should be protected against mechanical damage. All measures of safety precaution must be undertaken.
Notes and commentary:
keep it well cleaned – òðèìàòè â ÷èñòîò³
undue heating – íàäì³ðíå íàãð³âàííÿ
may be due to – ìîæå áóòè ÷åðåç
measures of safety precaution – çàõîäè ç òåõí³êè áåçïåêè
Task VI. Answer the questions:
1. Does the electrical equipment deserve attention?
2. How must we keep the electrical equipment?
3. What are the main reasons of heating?
4. What are the conditions under which electrical machine may operate reliably?
5. What are the main reasons of vibration?
6. What must we undertake using electrical equipment?
Task VII. Translate into English:
Task VIII. Translate the following sentences into English:
Unit 12. PROTECTION AND CONTROL EQUIPMENT
Task I. Learn the words and phrases:
the knife switch
to make the circuit
to break the circuit
to keep the current
from being excessive
Task II. Give the Ukrainian equivalents to the following words:
contactor, direct current, the knife switch, equipment, generation, contactor, circuit, to remove, distribution, safety switch, to enclose, to make the circuit, in series, to break the circuit, to keep the current from being excessive.
Task III. Match the Ukrainian equivalents with the English words:
the knife switch;
Task IV. Read and translate the text.
In electrical systems for the generation, distribution and use of electrical energy, considerable control equipment is necessary.
It can be divided into two classes:
a) equipment used at the generating and distributing end;
b) equipment used at the receiving end of the system.
Safety switches are used at the point where the power enters a building. They are of the knife type and are usually enclosed in metallic boxes.
A magnetic contactor is used to make and break the circuit at the points where considerable power is used.
An automatic starter is a device which is used to keep the current from being excessive while the motor is obtaining full speed. It is a kind of a resistance inserted in series with the direct current in series with armature.
As the motor obtains speed it gradually removers.
Task V. Answer the questions to the text:
1. What control devices in electrical systems do you know?
2. How can the control equipment be divided into?
3. Where are safety switches used?
4. What is used to make and break the circuit at the points where considerable power is used?
5. What is an automatic starter?
Task VI. Fill in blanks the necessary words:
1. Considerable control equipment is necessary in electrical systems for … .
2. Safety switches are of the … and are usually … .
3. A magnetic contactor is used to … at the point where considerable power is used.
4. An automatic starter is a device which is used … while the motor …
5. Automatic starter is a kind of a resistance … .
Task VII. Translate into English:
Task VIII. Retell the text.
Task IX. Sum up the main information from the text in writing.
Unit 13. MEASURING DEVICES
Task I. Memorize the following words and word combinations:
to measure (to calibrate)
of the same type
to give reading
Task II. Match the words with their meanings:
an electrical instrument in which coiled wire carries an electrical current;
coiled wire carries an electrical current;
any aspect of thing at some stage of change;
electromotive force measured in volts;
to find the size, extent, volume, etc. of a thing.
Task III. Read and translate the text.
Ammeters measure the current flowing in a circuit and normally have scales which are calibrated in amperes, milliamperes or microamperes.
Voltmeters are used to measure the potential difference between two points in a circuit. The calibration of voltmeters is usually in volts, millivolts or microvolts.
The main difference between the two instruments of the same type is in the resistance of the operating coil.
Wattmeters. – The measurement of the power in a direct current at any instant can be achieved by means of an ammeter and voltmeter as the power in watts is the product of the current and the voltage. With alternating current circuits, however, the instantaneous values are always changing. To measure alternating current power correctly, therefore, it is necessary to use the third instrument to measure the phase difference. The normal practice, however, is to combine these three instruments in one which will give reading of power in watts.
Task IV. Answer the following questions:
1. What measuring devices do you know?
2. What do ammeters measure?
3. What is the calibration of ammeters?
4. When are voltmeters used?
5. What is the calibration of voltmeters?
6. Is the power in watts the product of the current and voltage?
7. What is used to measure the phase difference?
8. Try to describe the difference between ammeters, voltmeters and wattmeters.
Task V. Complete the following sentences with the appropriate word or phrase:
1. … the potential difference between two points in a circuit.
2. The calibration of ammeters is usually in … .
3. With alternating current circuits the instantaneous values … .
4. To measure alternating current power correctly it is necessary … .
Task VI. Make a short summary of the text.
UNIT I: EDUCATION IN THE USA
Focus I. Pre-School Years
Before Listening Activities
Activity I: Orientation
1. Who takes care of young children (up to the age of five) in Russia? Do you know how much parents have to pay for childcare?
2. Look at the pie charts comparing the expenses on children (from birth through age 17) in 1960 and 2009. Describe the charts using the vocabulary below. Summarize the trends. Can you explain them?
Verbs and adverbs: to increase/rise by, to decrease/fall by, to increase/go up/climb/rise to, to decrease/fall/decline/drop/go down/reduce to, to maintain the same level, to remain steady/stable (at), to fluctuate around, to grow (rise, fall, etc) dramatically/ sharply/considerably/significantly/slightly
Nouns and adjectives: a slight/dramatic/sharp/gradual/steady/substantial/significant increase (rise, growth, decrease, decline, fall, etc)
Activity II: Helpful Vocabulary
1. Look at the list of words used to describe various childcare providers in the USA. Match the words to their definitions.
1) au pair
a) a school or class to prepare children aged five for school
b) care provided by an individual or a few individuals in their private home
3) daycare center
c) a school for children between the ages of about two and five
4) home daycare
d) a place when babies or young children are looked after during the day, especially while their family members are at work
5) Head Start center
e) a facility where care for a parent’s baby or toddler is provided either directly at her/his place of employment or directly adjacent to it
f) a person who takes care of babies or children while their parents are away from home and is usually paid to do this
g) a parent who stays at home to take care of their children instead of going out to work
8) on-site (corporate) daycare center
i) a woman whose job is to take care of young children in the children’s own home
9) preschool (nursery school)
j) a young person, usually a woman, who lives with a family in a foreign country in order to learn the language. She/he helps in the house, takes care of children and receives a small wage
10) stay-at-home mother/father
k) a federally-funded center for children aged three to five years from low-income families. Its aim is to prepare children for success in school through an early learning program.
2. Put the words from the previous exercise into the following categories:
center-based care (facilities which provide care for children in groups)
family childcare (providers who offer care for children in their own home)
in-home care (care occurs in the child’s own home)
3. Guess the meaning of the underlined words and phrases from the context:
1. The daycare dilemma is always on my mind. It’s just always there. It’s pervasive.
2. When my friends needed to make the decision whether or not to go back to work, they sat down and calculated out to the nth expense.
3. Many daycare centers are expensive, they are places where parents are overcharged.
4. I grew up in an area where all my relatives lived. It was a built-in unit.
5. If one of the parents was busy, you were dropped at aunt’s house, uncle’s house.
6. You cannot underestimate having a grandmother. It’s one of the greatest inventions ever.
7. Who did you think might take care of your child, and how does it match up with what actually happened?
8. When I found out I was pregnant, I definitely went through sticker shock.
Listening Comprehension Activities
1. You are going to hear a discussion which takes place in a radio station studio. The radio host Michelle Norris is talking with a group of parents from Washington, D.C. about childcare costs in the USA. The participants of the discussion are:
· Stacy Ferguson, who has had different kinds of childcare for her three kids
· Sharon Johnson, a retired woman who takes care of her three-year-old grandson while his parents work
· Adam Graham, a former stay-at-home dad who has two daughters
· Kelly Hruska, a stay-at-home mother of two small girls
· Angela Tilghman, a single mother who works long hours while a lifelong friend cares for her special needs son
Listen to the discussion and write T (true) or F (false) in front of each of the sentences below. Correct the false statements.
1. The participants of the discussion believe that childcare providers make a lot of money as daycare expenses are quite big.
2. Adam says that he paid for his daughter’s Montessori school more than for his own college education.
3. Sharon insisted that her daughter and her son-in-law pay her for taking care of their child because she needed additional income.
4. Sharon would like to open a center to provide affordable childcare.
5. Nannies in D.C. cost about thirty - forty thousand dollars per year.
6. Stacy regrets that she stayed at home for the first years of her child’s life instead of going back to work and making a career.
7. Angela was at a loss when she found out that she was pregnant.
2. Listen again and answer the following questions:
1. What does Kelly say about the process of making the decision whether to go back to work or become a stay-at-home parent?
2. How does Sharon describe her experience as a nanny for her grandson? What is it like? How much money does she get paid?
3. What does Adam say about problems his wife and he faced when they had their children? Who helped them to raise their kids?
4. What does Stacy advise young mothers and mothers-to-be?
5. In Adam’s opinion, what personal quality is essential for parents?
After Listening Activities
Activity I: Discussing the Issues
1. Study the following chart which compares costs of different types of childcare in the USA. Which is the most affordable option for parents? Which is the most expensive?
Type of childcare
Average cost for full-time care
$380 to $1564 a month for babies and toddlers (average $972)
$300 to $1000 a month for babies and toddlers (average $650), $315 to $956 a month for preschoolers (average $636)
$500 to $700 a week ($2,167 to $3,033 a month); live-in nannies usually receive a bit less
Often free, but if parents choose to pay, it is usually minimum wage or more. They can also offer to do chores, give gift certificates, or pay an occasional bill for a relative caregiver.
No extra cost — but income drops if you were working before
an average cost of about $350 a week for full-time live-in care
an average of $10 per hour
Note: Costs are based on the latest figures from the National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies (NACCRRA) (http://www.babycenter.com/childcare-options)
2. Can you think of pros and cons of types of childcare given in the chart above? Choose one type and discuss your ideas with a partner, then present them to your class. You can use the following stories for some ideas (one story about each type):
1) These young girls can only work 45 hours a week. They must go to school while they’re here. And the host family must pay for them to go to school: $500. So if you’re working full time, you need more help than 45 hours a week. And they don’t really want to work on the weekends. If you need help on the weekends, they’re not going to work on the weekends (http://www.npr.org/templates/story/).
2) Well, if we talk about nannies, it’s not inexpensive. It is not for everybody. Of course, I think it’s the best option. You have one-on-one care. You have to have references here that we can call. Everybody’s legal. Everybody drives. You are paying more, but you get a lot more bang for your buck (http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14151163).
3) My parents have always taken care of my son. I have phobia against bringing anyone into the house that I don’t know and that’s not related to me, who may hurt him, like take advantage of him, even. I mean, just every headline that makes it onto CNN and fills our tabloids is exactly what sits in my head (http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14151163).
4) I had a daycare center experience. And I guess the pro of that it’s affordable. But it’s not for somebody who has very flexible hours. Well, I mean, you have to pick up that child by 6 o'clock, come hell or high water. So if you have to work late, that's just way too bad (http://www.npr.org/templates/story)
5) While I loved the in-home provider and she was much cheaper, either she or her kids were constantly sick, so she was constantly closing. It became a huge problem for me and my husband. She closed for two weeks once and we had to scramble to find someone to watch our daughter (http://www.circleofmoms.com/working-mums/in-home-daycare-vs-child-daycare-center-553341).
6) When I was kid, my parents hired really good babysitters. I remember one girl in particular who let us watch as much Star Wars as we wanted. Awesome. Another babysitter was this older kid who set up wrestling rings in our basement. My brother particularly appreciated his child-tending “skills”
7) I am a stay at home mother, and a qualified teacher. My husband prefers me to be at home with our daughter. He thinks that it is ultimately better for her to be raised by me. I honestly have to agree with him, and THAT is why I am staying at home. We want to be the ones to see her first steps, her first crawl, hear her first words… not a stranger. We trust each other more than I would ever trust a stranger to take care of her (http://www.dumpyourwifenow.com/2007/01/04/are-stay-at-home-mothers-killing-american-men/).
3. If you had young children, which of the childcare options would you choose? Why?
Read for general information on the topic. Write out the words and expressions which seem to be the most relevant to speak about the topic.