Each year several thousand mechanisms, instruments and devices of various kinds are introduced into production. The technological servicing of their designing and production is a very complicated problem.
It is very important that specialists should have information on the properties of materials subjected to most severe conditions of temperature, loading corrosion, etc.
Progress in such different fields as space research, nuclear power engineering, in such technologies as laser and plasma technologies, powder metallurgy and others would be impossible without a complete knowledge of the properties of various engineering materials with new properties. Modern industry requires materials capable of working in diverse conditions.
It is known that all engineering materials are divided into metals and non-metals. Copper, cast iron, aluminium are examples of metals. Rubber, plastic, glass, wood and ceramics are examples of non-metals. Today different metals are widely used in machine-building industry.
We can divide all metals into ferrous and non-ferrous. Steel and cast iron are in the group of ferrous metals. They are alloys of iron with carbon, manganese, silicon and other components.
Non-ferrous metals are metals and alloys the main component of which is not iron but some other elements such as aluminium, copper and others. Some of the characteristics of non-ferrous metals are high electric and heat conductivity, high corrosion resistance, light weight and easiness of fabrication.
Task VII. Find the proper continuation of the sentences according to the information in the text:
1. All engineering materials are divided into ... .
2. Ferrous metals have ... .
b) metals and non-metals
3. The characteristics of non-ferrous metals are ... .
c) machine-building industry
4. One of the main components of non-ferrous metals is ... .
d) ferrous metals
5. We use different metals in ... .
e) iron with carbon, manganese silicon and other components.
6. Steel and cast iron are examples of ... .
f) high electric and heat conductivity, high corrosion resistance, light weight, etc ... .
Task VIII. Correct mistakes in the following sentences:
1. This beam made of concrete.
2. This beaker is made from glass.
3. Tyres is usually made of rubber.
4. This steel pipes are made of cast iron.
5. The device for measuring temperature is known a thermometer.
Task X. Answer the following questions:
1. What groups are all engineering materials divided into?
2. Why is it necessary for an engineer to know the properties of materials?
3. What engineering materials have been developed by modern material science?
4. What are non-ferrous metals?
5. What are the characteristics of non-ferrous metals?
6. Where are different metals used?
7. There are ferrous and non-ferrous metals, aren’t there?
8. Are steel and cast iron ferrous or non-ferrous metals?
Task XI. Agree or disagree with the following statements:
1. Plastic is a heavy material.
2. Steel, iron and copper are widely used for making tools.
3. One of the main characteristics of ferrous metals is high corrosion resistance.
4. Rubber is a very tough engineering material.
5. Aluminium and copper are the main components of non-ferrous metals.
Task XII. Give answers to the given questions and reproduce the dialogue with your partner:
− There are two kinds of engineering materials, aren’t there?