My heart aches, and a drowsy numbness pains
My sense, as though of hemlock I had drunk,
Or emptied some dull opiate to the drains
One minute past, and Lethe-wards had sunk:
’Tis not through envy of thy happy lot,
But being too happy in thine happiness,—
That thou, light-winged Dryad of the trees,
In some melodious plot
Of beechen green, and shadows numberless,
Singest of summer in full-throated ease.
O, for a draught of vintage! that hath been
Cool’d a long age in the deep-delved earth,
Tasting of Flora and the country green,
Dance, and Provençal song, and sunburnt mirth!
O for a beaker full of the warm South,
Full of the true, the blushful Hippocrene,
With beaded bubbles winking at the brim,
And purple-stained mouth;
That I might drink, and leave the world unseen,
And with thee fade away into the forest dim:
Fade far away, dissolve, and quite forget
What thou among the leaves hast never known,
The weariness, the fever, and the fret
Here, where men sit and hear each other groan;
Where palsy shakes a few, sad, last grey hairs,
Where youth grows pale, and spectre-thin, and dies;
Where but to think is to be full of sorrow
And leaden-eyed despairs,
Where beauty cannot keep her lustrous eyes,
Or new Love pine at them beyond to-morrow.
Away! away! for I will fly to thee,
Not charioted by Bacchus and his pards,
But on the viewless wings of Poesy,
Though the dull brain perplexes and retards:
Already with thee! tender is the night,
And haply the Queen-Moon is on her throne,
Cluster’d around by all her starry Fays;
But here there is no light,
Save what from heaven is with the breezes blown
Through verdurous glooms and winding mossy ways.
I cannot see what flowers are at my feet,
Nor what soft incense hangs upon the boughs,
But, in embalmed darkness, guess each sweet
Wherewith the seasonable month endows
The grass, the thicket, and the fruit-tree wild;
White hawthorn, and the pastoral eglantine;
Fast fading violets cover’d up in leaves;
And mid-May’s eldest child,
The coming musk-rose, full of dewy wine,
The murmurous haunt of flies on summer eves.
Darkling I listen; and, for many a time
I have been half in love with easeful Death,
Call’d him soft names in many a mused rhyme,
To take into the air my quiet breath;
Now more than ever seems it rich to die,
To cease upon the midnight with no pain,
While thou art pouring forth thy soul abroad
In such an ecstasy!
Still wouldst thou sing, and I have ears in vain—
To thy high requiem become a sod.
Thou wast not born for death, immortal Bird!
No hungry generations tread thee down;
The voice I hear this passing night was heard
In ancient days by emperor and clown:
Perhaps the self-same song that found a path
Through the sad heart of Ruth, when, sick for home,
She stood in tears amid the alien corn;
The same that oft-times hath
Charm’d magic casements, opening on the foam
Of perilous seas, in faery lands forlorn.
Forlorn! the very word is like a bell
To toll me back from thee to my sole self!
Adieu! the fancy cannot cheat so well
As she is fam’d to do, deceiving elf.
Adieu! adieu! thy plaintive anthem fades
Past the near meadows, over the still stream,
Up the hill-side; and now ’tis buried deep
In the next valley-glades:
Was it a vision, or a waking dream?
Fled is that music:—Do I wake or sleep?
Comprehension check: Recall and Interpret
1. In When I Have Fears That I May Cease to Be, what two things does the speaker sometimes fear? What does Keats mean by the phrase “fair creature of an hour” in line 9?
2. In To Autumn, what impression of autumn emerges from the description given? What attitude toward spring is implied?
3.In the first stanza of Ode on a Grecian Urn, why is the urn referred to as a “sylvan historian”? What is the “flowery tale” it tells?
4.In Ode to a Nightingale, what emotions does the speaker feel when he hears the bird’s song? Why does the speaker long to join the nightingale?
Literary analysis: Evaluate and Connect
5. Paraphrase Quatrains In each quatrain of the sonnet When I Have Fears That I May Cease to Be, Keats examines an aspect of the fear of death. Paraphrase each quatrain, noting the parallel clauses at the beginning of each.
• Lines 1–4 (“When I have fears ... ripen’d grain”)
• Lines 5–8 (“When I behold ... hand of chance”)
• Lines 9–12 (“And when I feel … unreflecting love”)
6. Examine Personification In To Autumn, how is autumn personified, or given human attributes, in each of the stanzas? Cite examples from the poem to support your answer.
7. Analyze Sound Devices Keats has been widely praised for creating pleasing sound patterns in his poems. Find examples of these sound devices—alliteration, assonance, consonance—in Ode to a Nightingale. How does each example contribute to the poem’s effect?
8. Interpret ImageryThink about the imagery in lines 41–50 in Ode to a Nightingale. In your own words, describe the scene the speaker conveys to the reader. Explain how these images are related to the nightingale and what they suggest about the nightingale’s song.
9. Interpret Ambiguity Reread the final couplet, lines 49–50, of Ode on a Grecian Urn. Explain what you think Keats meant to convey to his readers. Support your answer.
10. Draw Conclusions About Odes In To Autumn, Ode on a Grecian Urn, and Ode to a Nightingale, Keats expresses a deep appreciation for the beauty of nature and of art. What value does he seem to ascribe to beauty?
11. Biographical Context Keats wrote the three odes you read following the death of his brother Tom and in the midst of his own worsening illness. In what ways are his experiences with illness and death reflected in the poems? Cite details to support your conclusions.
12. Writing About LiteratureWrite four or five paragraphs about Keats’s imagery in one of the four poems you have just read. Use passages from the poem to show how his imagery appeals to each of the various senses. You might also discuss how other literary devices help him create or underscore the sensory impressions he conveys with his imagery.
13. Creative Writing “Where are the songs of Spring?”asks the speaker in To Autumn. Review his description of the songs of autumn. Then, think about the natural noises that would be the songs of spring. Write a poem in which you present these songs. Use stanza 3 of To Autumn as a model or develop your own free-verse presentation. Save your work for your portfolio.
14. Internet ConnectionSurf the Internet (including the Glencoe Literature Web site at <http://www.lit.glencoe.com>) to see what other students think about John Keats’s odes. Using
Keats’s name as your search word, visit one of the many Keats pages or chat rooms. There, you might generate questions about Keats and post them on a bulletin board. Save the best information you find for your portfolio.
 OLD ENGLISH POETRYReread lines 1–2 aloud. Notice the use of alliterationwith the repetition of the letters p and d. What mood,or feeling, does the alliteration convey?
 EPICNote the description in lines 23–29 of supernatural creatures that are “again and again defeated.” What universal thememight these lines suggest?
 CONFLICTWhat does the conflict between the Danes and Grendel symbolize?
 EPICWhat is the toneof lines 44–49? What words and details convey this tone?
 OLD ENGLISH POETRYWhat does the kenning“hell-forged hands” in line 64 suggest about Grendel?
 EPICReread lines 109–116, in which Beowulf is first introduced. What traitsof an epic herodoes he appear to possess?
 EPICNotice that in lines 153–159, Beowulf boasts about past victories that required superhuman strength and courage. Why might the people of Beowulf’s time have valued such traits?
 CONFLICTDiscuss how the original fight of good versus evil has grown more complex. What might Grendel’s reaction be when Beowulf and his warriors join in the Danes’ fight?
 OLD ENGLISH POETRYObserve that as Hrothgar begins to speak about Grendel in lines 207–210, the moodbecomes bleak and despairing. What repeated sounds does the poet use to suggest this mood?
 EPICNote that Hrothgar delivers a long speech to Beowulf in lines 190–224. What values are reflected in the speech?
 OLD ENGLISH POETRYReread lines 233–235. Notice that the translator uses punctuation to convey the effect of the midline pauses, or caesuras,in the lines. In what way does the rhythm created by the pauses reinforce the action recounted here?
 CONFLICTReread lines259-261. How does Beowulf differ from other warriors whom Grendel has attacked?
 OLD ENGLISH POETRYReread lines 293–300. What impression of the battle does the alliterationhelp convey?
 CONFLICTReread lines356-358.Why does Beowulf hang Grendel’s arm in the rafters?
 GRAMMAR AND STYLETo capture a scene, the poet often uses vivid imagery.Notice the use in lines 369–374, for example, of adjectivessuch as bloody, steaming, pounding, and swirling to help readers see and feel the violent, churning water.
 OLD ENGLISH POETRYReread lines 389–396. In what ways does this description reflect the techniques used by Anglo-Saxon poets? Cite details.
 EPICReread lines 464–474. What details of the battle and its settingare characteristic of an epic?
 CONFLICTReread lines 523-525.Irony is a discrepancy between expectation and reality. What is ironic about the way Beowulf kills Grendel’s mother?
 EPICWhat does the light described in lines 526–528 suggest about Beowulf’s victory?
 EPICWhat do lines 549–555 suggest about attitudes toward fame in the Anglo-Saxon period?
 EPICReread lines 587–594. Why do you think the Geats want the Danes to see Grendel’s skull?
 OLD ENGLISH POETRYNotice the repeated use of the letter f in lines 606–611. What tonedoes the alliterationhelp convey?
 CONFLICTReread lines 627-629.Is Beowulf being foolhardy or noble in deciding to fight alone? Explain.
 EPICReread lines 668–671. What do these lines reveal about the qualities of an epic hero?
 EPICWhat values are implied in lines 691–696? What message about these values do the lines convey?
 EPICNote that Beowulf summarizes his 50-year reign in lines 744–755. What ideals are reflected in Beowulf’s speech?
 EPICReread lines 768–778. What themedo the lines suggest?
 OLD ENGLISH POETRYIdentify the kenningsused in lines 789–794 to refer to the dragon and to Beowulf. What does the phrase used to describe Beowulf emphasize about the warrior?
 EPICReread lines 812–819. Why is it important to Beowulf that he leave a legacy behind?
 EPICWhat does Wiglaf’s speech in lines 851–862 tell you about the importance of honor and the consequences of dishonorable behavior in Beowulf’s time?
 OLD ENGLISH POETRYReread lines 889–893 aloud. Notice the alliterationin the phrases “words for their lords” and “warm with love.” How would you describe the toneof these lines?
 SUMMARIZINGSummarize the argument that Paulinus makes in the following speech.
 HISTORICAL NARRATIVEIn what way is this detail characteristic of a historical narrative?
 HISTORICAL NARRATIVEReread lines 47-48. How might a modern historian represent this scene differently?
 HISTORICAL WRITINGWhat do you learn from this paragraph about poetry in Caedmon’s time?
 HISTORICAL WRITINGTo what does Bede attribute Caedmon’s ability to compose poetry? Restate what Bede tells you about Caedmon’s poem.
 HISTORICAL WRITINGIn lines 34–46, what do you learn about the organization and the work of the monastery?
 AUTHOR’S PURPOSEHow are readers meant to feel toward Caedmon? Explain how you can tell.
 IMAGERY, MOOD In lines 12–26, what senses does the imagery appeal to? Describe the moodcreated by the imagery.
 MOODIn lines 31-33, what mood do the images in these lines create?
 IMAGERYNote how the images in lines 44–57 contrast with the images of the sea. How is the speaker affected by thoughts of life on land?
 MONITORNotice the break at line 64. Here the speaker turns to a new idea. How do you interpret the sentence beginning “Thus the joys of God . . .”?
 MONITOR Visualizethe images of the world in lines 80–102. What main idea do they convey?
 MONITOR Paraphrasethe advice the speaker gives in lines 117–122. Where is “our home”?
 PARAPHRASERestate lines 1–18. Why does the group make its pilgrimage in April?
 PARAPHRASEParaphrase lines 35–42. What does the narrator set out to accomplish in “The Prologue”?
 CHARACTERIZATIONReread lines 43–74. What do the Knight’s actions on and off the battlefield reveal about his character? Cite details to support your answer.
 CHARACTERIZATIONReread lines 122–145. Which details suggest that the Prioress may be trying to appear more sophisticated than she really is?
 CHARACTERIZATIONList three character traitsof the Monk. In what ways does the narrator appear to poke fun at him?
 PARAPHRASERestate lines 237–246. How does the Friar spend the money he earns through hearing confessions?
 PARAPHRASEParaphrase lines 284–294. Is the Merchant a successful businessman? Why or why not?
 CHARACTERIZATIONReread lines 295–318. In what ways does the Oxford Cleric differ from the Monk and the Friar? Cite details.
 CHARACTERIZATIONWhat does the narrator state directly about the Franklin in lines 341–356?
 CHARACTERIZATIONReread lines 455–486. Which details help define the Wife of Bath as a worldly woman?
 PARAPHRASERestate lines 515–524. In what ways does the Parson serve the members of his parish?
 CHARACTERIZATIONCompare the Plowman with his brother, the Parson. What character traitsdo they seem to share?
 GRAMMAR AND STYLEReview lines 570–575. Notice how Chaucer uses similes,or comparisons, to create a remarkably vivid— and unflattering— portrait of the Miller.
 PARAPHRASEParaphrase the description of the Pardoner in lines 712–726. How exactly does he earn a living?
 PARAPHRASERestate lines 810–821. What proposal does the Host make to the pilgrims?
 CHARACTERIZATIONExamine the way the pilgrims respond to the Host in lines 830–841. What type of person do you think would appeal to so many?
 READING BALLADSReread lines 25–32. Which words capture the Scottish dialect,or regional language? Explain the strategies you used to understand these words.
 BALLADWhat might account for the enduring popularity of “Get Up and Bar the Door”? Consider the ballad’s subject matter, dialogue, and musical qualities in your response.
 ROMANCEWhat details in lines 1–23 make the Green Knight a larger-than-life figure?
 MAKE INFERENCESWhy does the Green Knight taunt Arthur and his knights in lines 88–94?
 ARCHETYPE What traits does Gawain reveal about himself in lines 120–134?
 ROMANCEWhich characteristics of medieval romance are reflected in lines 161–174?
 MAKE INFERENCESReread lines 185– 189. What can you infer about Arthur and Gawain’s feelings about their encounter with the Green Knight?
 GRAMMAR AND STYLEThe Gawain Poet uses alliterative participial phrasesthroughout the poem, which creates a rhythmic or “musical” effect in the selection. “Gleaming gold” in line 205 is a good example.
 ARCHETYPE In lines 209–217, what does Gawain’s refusal of gifts suggest about his character?
 MAKE INFERENCESReread lines 227–236. Why is Gawain distressed when he learns about the sash’s magical powers?
 MAKE INFERENCESReread lines 271–275. Why does the Green Knight stop his axe from falling a second time?
 ROMANCE Paraphraselines 357–365. What ideals of chivalry does Gawain believe he has betrayed?
 CONFLICTReread lines 1–8 and the background note. How have Launcelot’s past actions set the stage for his current conflict with King Arthur?
 SUMMARIZESummarize in one sentence the advice Launcelot receives from his counselors in lines 14–25.
 CONFLICTWhat internal conflict does Arthur reveal in lines 47–52?
 SUMMARIZEDescribe the battle between Launcelot and Gawain. What tactic does Launcelot use to overcome Gawain’s secret advantage?
MEDIEVAL ROMANCEIn what ways does Launcelot exemplify the ideals of chivalry in lines 172–186?
SUMMARIZEReread lines 195–209 and summarize the events that open this section of the selection.
CONFLICTDescribe the external conflict in lines 216–224.
SUMMARIZESummarize lines 235–243. Why do many people in Britain support Modred?
SUMMARIZEReread lines 279–302. Briefly summarize Gawain’s letter to Sir Launcelot.
SUMMARIZESummarize lines 350–367. What leads to the breaking of the treaty between King Arthur and Modred?
CONFLICTWhat internal conflict does Sir Bedivere experience in lines 436–455? How does he ultimately resolve it?
 PASTORALWhat characteristics of pastoralpoems do you find in lines 9–14?
 COMPARE SPEAKERSReread lines 13–16. How does the nymph directly refute the shepherd’s promises?
 SUMMARIZEWhat is the main idea in lines 1–4?
 SPENSERIAN SONNETNote the words Spenser uses in his end rhymes. In what ways are they related to the major ideas in this sonnet?
 SHAKESPEAREAN SONNETReread lines 13–14. How does this turnaffect your understanding of the statements that come before it in the poem?
 SIMILE AND METAPHORExplain the metaphor in this line. What is being compared?
 DRAW CONCLUSIONS ABOUT THEMEWhat conclusion can you draw from lines 21–28 about Hamlet’s fear of death?
 VOICEHow would you describe Jaques’s voice in these lines?
 BLANK VERSEReread line 38. Compare its meter with that of line 10 in Scene 1, spoken by the three witches. What do the two lines suggest about the witches?
 FORESHADOWINGIn lines 65–68, the witches compare Banquo to Macbeth and prophesy that Banquo will not be king but will father (get) future kings. What do you think their words predict for Macbeth?
 ASIDEReread Macbeth’s aside in lines 130–142. What private thoughts does he reveal to the audience? Why might he want to keep these thoughts hidden from the other characters?
 FORESHADOWINGNotice that in lines 11–14, Duncan admits he misjudged the thane of Cawdor, who proved a traitor. What might this admission foreshadow about the king?
 TRAGEDYBe aware that in Macbeth’s aside in lines 48–53, he admits that he hopes the king will be murdered. Based on these lines, what do you think is Macbeth’s tragic flaw?
 GRAMMAR AND STYLEReread line 8. Shakespeare frequently uses inverted sentencesand other types of inverted word order to achieve a poetic effect. Notice that in this line, Shakespeare places have, part of the verb phrase have thought, before the subject I to create a regular, pleasing rhythm.
 SOLILOQUYNotice that in her soliloquy in lines 12–27, Lady Macbeth expresses her thoughts about the prophecies. What conclusions can you draw about Lady Macbeth?
 DRAMATIC IRONYWhy is the exchange between Lady Macbeth and Duncan in lines 25–31 ironic?
 SOLILOQUYNote that in lines 12–28 of his soliloquy, Macbeth lists the reasons why he shouldn’t kill Duncan. How do you think other characters will react if Macbeth kills the king?
 TRAGEDYReread lines 47–59. How does Lady Macbeth urge her husband to carry out his terrible plan?
 RHETORICAL DEVICESReread lines 1–5. What rhetorical device does More use, and what effect does it have?
 GRAMMAR AND STYLEReread lines 31–38. Note that More uses a succession of imperative sentencesto convey his ideas about how a king should behave.
 DRAW CONCLUSIONSReread lines 16–19. What conclusions can you draw about the kinds of feelings a ruler should inspire in times of war?
 MAKE INFERENCESThe selection contains many contrasting pairs, such as “weep” and “laugh,” and “love” and “hate.” What message do they help convey?
 SCRIPTURAL WRITINGPsalm 23 is part of a collection of psalms often called “songs of trust.” Why might it be included in this group?
 MAKE INFERENCESJudging from the younger son’s realization in verses 17–19, what values does the parable suggest are important?
 ALLUSIONReread lines 1–16, find and interpret the various allusions. What will be the subject of Milton’s poem?
 DIFFICULT TEXTSReread lines 94–98. Paraphrasethis passage to clarify its meaning. What is Satan’s attitude toward his defeat?
 DIFFICULT TEXTSInterpret the various archaic expressionsin lines 111–124. Does Satan regret rebelling against God? Support your response with details.
 DIFFICULT TEXTSRewrite lines 159–165, reordering the syntax.What does Satan set out to accomplish?
 ALLUSIONIn lines 192–208, Milton compares Satan to several mythological and biblical figures. What do you learn about Satan from the allusions to Typhon and Leviathan?
 DIFFICULT TEXTSReread the sentence in lines 209–220, identifying its subject and verb. Which details suggest that Satan has limited control over his own future?
 ALLEGORYReread lines 1–20. In a few words, describe the people and activities of Vanity Fair. What symbolic meaning might this place have?
 AUTHOR’S PURPOSEReread lines 22–29, whom or what is Bunyan poking fun at? Explain the purpose this criticism might serve.
 ALLEGORYReread lines 70–86. Identify several allegorical characters and describe their attitude toward Faithful.
 AUTHOR’S PURPOSEIn lines 98–113, Bunyan presents Christian and Hopeful reaching their final destination, the Celestial City. What emotional effect, if any, does this episode create?
 METAPHYSICAL CONCEITReread lines 25–28. What is unusual about comparing two lovers to a compass?
 METAPHYSICAL CONCEITReread lines 6–12. What comparison is made in this conceit?
 INTEPRET IDEASWha..t paradoxdo you find in lines 20–22? How would you interpret it?
 EPITAPHWhat mooddoes Jonson convey in lines 11–12?
 COMPARE SPEAKERSReread lines 1–4. What emotion does the speaker express?
 RHYMEWhich end rhyme in the poem is an example of slant rhyme?
 THEMEReread lines 21–22. Explain how these lines help convey the theme of carpe diem.
 FIGURATIVE MEANINGFiguratively speaking, what might the rosebuds in line 1 be a reference to?
 THEMENote the last line of each stanza so far. What might this repetitionsuggest about the poem’s theme?
 DIARYReread lines 5–13. What details tell you that Pepys was an eyewitness to Charles II’s return to England?
 DIARY Reread lines 13–25. What do you learn about Charles II’s experiences and personality? Explain how this account of the king might differ from other histories.
 CONNECT TO HISTORYReread lines 26–67.Compare the king’s coronation to a modern event, such as a presidential inauguration. Would you have been as eager as Pepys to witness the ceremony? Explain your response.
 GRAMMAR AND STYLEReread lines 88–101. Note how Pepys’s emotionally charged phrases, such as “heart full of trouble,” and his use of sentence fragmentsreflect the intimacy and informality of a diary entry.
 CONNECT TO HISTORYReread Pepys’s account of the Great Fire in lines 68–127. Think about your own reaction to an impending fire or another disaster. Would you have responded as Pepys did? Why or why not?
 DIARYIn lines 141–159, Pepys describes aspects of his home life. What roles and responsibilities do he and his wife each fulfill?
 DIARYReread lines 160–179. Which details suggest that Pepys led a privileged life during the Restoration?
 DRAW CONCLUSIONSReread lines 13–21. Which details suggest that the plague caused family relationships and friendships to fall apart?
 VERISIMILITUDEReview Defoe’s use of numbers, dates,and statisticsin lines 22–43. Would the description of the Aldgate burial pit be as compelling without these details? Explain your response.
 VERISIMILITUDEThe narrator recounts information about Aldgate and Finsbury, actual areas of London struck by the epidemic. How might Defoe’s original audience have reacted to reading these familiar geographical names?
 DRAW CONCLUSIONSReread lines 69–99. Contrast the actions of the desperate man to those of the buriers. Whose response to the plague is more disturbing? Explain your thoughts.
 VERISIMILITUDEIn lines 112–124, the first-person narratordescribes the horrors of London’s infected parishes. How might your sense of the epidemic be different if a third-person narrator described the scene?
 HEROIC COUPLETIn Pope’s time, tea was pronounced “tay.” How does Pope use rhyme in lines 7–8 to mock pomposity?
 ELEVATED LANGUAGEReread lines 53–54, imagining the sounds that Pope describes. Write a paraphraseof this couplet.
 HEROIC COUPLETReread lines 107–110. Which details in these couplets highlight the contrast between the actual incident that occurs and Belinda’s exaggerated reaction?
 MOCK EPICIn lines 125–132, what humorous effect does Pope create by using lofty language and allusions to Greek mythology?
 MOCK EPICWhat characteristics of a mock epic do you find in lines 133–140?
 ELEVATED LANGUAGEReread lines 193–198, paraphrasewhat the narrator says to comfort Belinda about the loss of her lock.
 PROPOSITION AND SUPPORTWhat problem does Swift identify in lines 1–18?
 SATIREReread lines 44–54. What social problem does Swift blame for the widespread thievery in Ireland?
 PROPOSITION AND SUPPORTReread lines 66–77. What is Swift’s proposal?
 SATIRE Understatementis an ironic device that creates emphasis by saying less than is expected or appropriate. In what way are lines 97–99 an example of understatement?
 SATIREWhat is ironicabout Swift’s concern in lines 115–120 regarding what “some scrupulous people” might think?
 PROPOSITION AND SUPPORTWhy does Swift supply these cost and profit calculations?
 PROPOSITION AND SUPPORTAccording to Swift in lines 167–175, how would his proposal improve family life?
 GRAMMAR AND STYLEReread lines 176–182. Notice that Swift uses nounslike carcasses and flesh to emphasize the dehumanization of the Irish by the English.
 PROPOSITIONAND SUPPORTReread lines 183–201. What attitude toward the Irish does Swift reveal in refuting this opposing view?
 FANTASYWhat details does Swift include in lines 20–39 to make this fantastic scene believable?
 FANTASYWhat details in lines 68–85 help you visualizethe difference in size between Gulliver and the Lilliputians?
 HISTORICAL CONTEXTReread lines 133–145 and the accompanying footnotes. What do you conclude is Swift’s attitude toward the politicians he alludes to in this description? Explain.
 HISTORICAL CONTEXTWhy might Walpole’s revival of the orders of knighthood have inspired Swift’s description of the ceremony in lines 158–169?
 FANTASYGulliver performs a strange ritual in lines 170–187 as part of the signing of his freedom agreement. What might Swift be poking fun at?
 PARODYWhat is absurd about the emperor’s claims?
 FANTASYWhat is ironicabout the praise of the Emperor in lines 188–196?
PARODY What might Swift be parodying with this lengthy document?
 FANTASYReread lines 229–238. Why might Swift have included these exact calculations in his narrative?
 HISTORICAL CONTEXTHow does the historical context help you understand the underlying meaning of Swift’s description of the Lilliputian prince in lines 261–274?
 HISTORICAL CONTEXTReread lines 275–303 and the accompanying footnotes. What does Swift’s account of Blefuscu suggest about France’s role in England’s religious conflicts?
 GRAMMAR AND STYLEReread lines 313–320. Notice that Swift uses subordinate clausesbeginning with because, when, and whom to convey specific details of the fantasy he is creating.
 FANTASYReread lines 339–353. What message about people and nations does Swift convey through the fantasy of the tiny
Lilliputians and the giant Brobdingnagians?
 FANTASYReread lines 423–437. How do the details in this passage enhance the depiction of Gulliver’s life in Brobdingnag?
 HISTORICAL CONTEXTReread lines 461–471 and the accompanying footnotes. In what ways are Swift’s own political views reflected in the questions and comments of the king?
 AUTHOR’S PURPOSEReread lines 23–28. What is the main ideaof this paragraph? What might have motivated Johnson
to make this point in his preface?
 GRAMMAR AND STYLEReread lines 36–40. Notice how Johnson uses parallelism—listing a series of phrases beginning with from—to emphasize his careful research.
 VOICEReread lines 47–57. Identify the words and phrases that give this passage a scholarly tone.
 VOICEReread the entry for the verb hiss. Which words indicate Johnson’s distinctive voice and would not likely be found in a more objective dictionary entry?
 ELEGYWhat moodis created by the images in the first three stanzas?
 MAKE INFERENCESReread lines 17–24. What do you infer about the lives and the values of those buried?
 ELEGYWhat observation about death is made in lines 33–36?
 MAKE INFERENCESWhat can you infer about the speaker’s life and values from the way he imagines himself described in lines 98–108?
 ELEGYIn lines 117–128, the speaker imagines his own epitaph,an inscription on his tomb. How does he want to be viewed upon his death?
 SYMBOLIn lines 13–18, Blake uses the symbol of the lamb to connect the poem’s three characters. What is he suggesting about the relationship between them?
 COMPARE AND CONTRASTHow does Blake’s tonein lines 17–20 differ from the tone used to discuss creation in “The Lamb”?
 DIALECTReread lines 1–6. What does the dialect in this stanza help to characterize about the speaker?
 DIALECTWhy do you think Burns mainly uses Standard English and not Scottish dialect in this stanza?
 MAKE INFERENCESHow would you paraphrase these lines?
 CLARIFY MEANINGReread lines 43–48 aloud. Use context clues and the side notes to paraphrasethis passage.
 ROMANTIC POETRYWhat details in lines 14–22 suggest that Wordsworth preferred to celebrate the individual rather than society in his work?
 ROMANTIC POETRYReread lines 22–49. When he was living in towns and cities, in what ways was the speaker affected by his past experiences in the landscape near Tintern Abbey?
 ROMANTIC POETRYWhat feelings does the speaker express in lines 49–57 about his everyday life? Cite details.
 STYLISTIC ELEMENTSReread lines 72–75. Identify the subject and the verb of this sentence. What phrases interrupt the main idea?
 LITERARY BALLADBased on lines 5–8, identify the length and rhyme scheme of a traditional ballad stanza.
 NARRATIVE POETRYCompare the sailing conditions described in lines 21–28 and 41–50. In what way does the poem’s settingchange?
 NARRATIVE POETRYSummarize the plot developmentsof the poem to this point. What conflictsmight arise because of the mariner’s action?
 LITERARY BALLADReread lines 123–126, identifying examples of onomatopoeia,or words whose sounds echo their meanings. In what way do these words contribute to the mood of the scene?
 LITERARY BALLADStorytellers of traditional ballads often repeated words to help make their works memorable. What ideas in lines 232–235 does Coleridge want his readers to remember?
 NARRATIVE POETRYAccording to lines 244–247, what is the mariner unable to do? Explain what this suggests about his character.
 NARRATIVE POETRYReread lines 272–291. Explain why the spell begins to break at this point. What does this event suggest about the relationship between humans, nature, and the supernatural?
 NARRATIVE POETRYIn a narrative, the climaxis the moment of greatest interest and intensity. What shocking discovery does the mariner make in lines 331–344?
 LITERARY BALLADReread lines 377–392. What supernaturalelement does Coleridge introduce to enhance the sensational nature of his tale?
 LITERARY BALLADBallads often feature dialogue,which adds liveliness and conveys key information. In what ways does the dialogue in lines 410–429 conform to these conventions?
 LITERARY BALLADRead aloud lines 460–463, identifying examples of alliteration,or the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words. What effect does this technique create?
 LITERARY BALLADIdentify several examples of archaic languagein lines 564–573. What effect do these antiquated expressions help to create?
 NARRATIVE POETRYExpress in your own words the thematic statement in lines 612–617.
 STANZA STRUCTUREWhat type of stanza is used in this poem so far? Do the lines follow a regular pattern of rhythm?Explain.
 FIGURATIVE LANGUAGEThe poet uses apostrophein this poem. Who is the speaker addressing in the poem?
 STANZA STRUCTUREReread lines 25 –32. Identify the type of stanza and paraphrase the ideas presented in it.
 STANZA STRUCTURENote the rhythmand rhyme schemeof this stanza. What idea is emphasized in the alexandrineline?
 FIGURATIVE LANGUAGEReread lines 19–20. Identify the metaphorin these lines. How does this comparison reinforce the idea that the ocean is powerful?
 FIGURATIVE LANGUAGEIdentify the metaphorin the last stanza, and explain what this comparison indicates about the speaker’s relationship to the ocean. Cite phrases that support your opinion.
 RHYTHMIC PATTERNSWhat words in lines 12 and 13 are emphasized by their departure from the regular meter?
 RHYTHMIC PATTERNSRead lines 1–9 aloud. What is the predominant meter?
 RHYME SCHEMEDescribe the interlocking pattern of rhyme, called terza rima,in the first four stanzas of section I. How does the fifth stanza bring the pattern to a close?
 HISTORICAL CONTEXTIn lines 63–70, what does the poet imply is the state of the world? Relate these lines to the social conditions.
 RHYTHMIC PATTERNSDescribe the meterof the first stanza. Is the metrical pattern maintained in the second stanza? Explain.
 HISTORICAL CONTEXTReread lines 36–40. Notice how Shelley views the poet’s role. Use your background reading to speculate about the “hopes and fears” unheeded by the world.
 RHYTHMIC PATTERNSHow is rhythmused to emphasize the last line of each stanza? Read line 90 aloud, considering what to stress and where to pause.
 HISTORICAL CONTEXTReread lines 101–105, considering the era in which Shelley was writing. What might he want the world to hear?
 PARAPHRASEIn your own words, restate the meaning of lines 7–8.
 IMAGERYReread lines 1–11. Point out words and phrases that suggest the abundance of the setting.
 PARAPHRASEWho is addressed in lines 12–22? In your own words, restate the speaker’s message.
 IMAGERYIn line 26, Keats makes use of synesthesia. Identify the sensation that is used to describe another.
 ODE Based on the imagery and ideas in the poem so far, what is being commemorated? Is it simply a Grecian urn? Explain.
 PARAPHRASE In your own words, describe the scene depicted in lines 32–34.
 IMAGERY Reread lines 11–20 and identify examples of synesthesia.
 ODEDescribe the tone of this poem. How is it characteristic of an ode?