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Lexico-Syntactital Stylistic Devices.

Phono-Graphical Level.

Onomatopoeia - the use of words whose sounds imitate things of the signified object or action., such as "hiss", "murmur", "grumble”.

Alliteration - the repetition of consonants, usually at the beginning of words.

Assonance - the repetition of similar vowels, usually in stressed syllables.

They both may produce the effect of euphony (a sense of ease and comfort in pronouncing and hearing), or cacophony (a sense of stain and discomfort in pronouncing and hearing).

1. This continual shushing annoyed him.

2. The fair breeze blue, the white foam flew.

The furrow followed free.

3. He swallowed the hint with a gulp and a gasp and a grim.

Graphon - the intentional violation of the graphical shape of a word (or word combination) used to reflect its authentic pronunciation. Graphon proved to be an extremely concise but effective means of supplying the information about the speaker's origin, social and educational background, physical or emotional condition, physical ddec speakers (stuttering, lisping, etc.). young age, lack of educational influence of dialectal norms, intoxication, carelessness in speech, it conveys the atmosphere of authentic life communication, the informality of the speech act. Graphical changes may reflect not only the peculiarities of pronunciation, but are also used to convey the intensity of the stress, emphasizing and thus foregrounding the stressed words (usually captions, posters, advertisements). Types of Graphon: 1) italics; 2) multiplication of a grapheme (Alllll are free); 3) capitalization of the word (HELP); 4) hyphenation (h-e-l-p).

1. "It do not take no nerve to do somepin when there aren’t nothing else you can do. We ain't gonna die out. People is goin ‘on – changin’ a little may be – but goin’.”

2."My daddy is coming tomorrow on a nairplane."

3. "I don't weally know wevver I’m a good girl. The last thing he'll dowould be to be mixed with a hovvid woman.”

4. "Oh, well, then, you just trot over to the table and make your little mommy a gweat big drink.”

5. best jean's for this Jeaneration.

6. "Hey! Is it a goddamu cardroom? Attensh-HUT! Da-ress right! DHRESS!" 7. Kiddies and grown-ups too-oo-oo.

We haven't enough to do-oo-oo.

Lexical Level.

Metaphor – transference of names based on the associated likeness between two objects. If a metaphor involves likeness between inanimate and animate objects, we deal with personification. Metaphor: SD’s, is fresh, original, genuine, when first used, and trite, hackneyed when often repeated. When the speaker (or writer) in his desire to present an elaborated image does not limit its creation to a single metaphor offers a group of them, each supplying another feature of the described phenomenon, this cluster is called a sustained (prolonged) metaphor.

1. And the skirts! What a sight were those skirts! They were nothing but vast decorated pyramids!



2. He smelted the ever-beautiful smell of coffee imprisoned in the can.

3. They walked along, two continents of experience and feeling unable to communicate.

4. I am the new year, I am an unspoiled page in your book of time, I am your next chance in the art of living.

Metonymy -transference of names based on the contiguity (nearness) of objects of phenomena. If the transference is based on the relations between a part and a whole we deal with a synecdoche.

1. He went about the room, after the introduction, looking at her pictures, bronzes and clays, asking after the creator of this, the painter of that, where a third thing came from.

2. The skirt will be a mass of wrinkles in the back.

3. For several days he took an hour after his work to make inquiry taking with him some examples of his pen and inks.

4. He made his way through the perfume and conversation.

Zeugma –a SD based on the polysemantic structure of the word. The word is used once within the same context but is realized in at least two of its meaning simultaneously.

Pun - a SD based on the polysemantic nature of the word. The word is repeated several times within one context each time being realized in one of the meanings.

1. I believed all men were brothers; she thought all men were husbands. I gave the whole mess up.

2. There is only one brand of tobacco allowed here - "Three Nuns". None today, none tomorrow, and none the day after.

3. His sins were scarlet, but his books were read.

Epithetexpresses characteristics of an object, both existing and imaginary. Its basic feature is its emotiveness and subjectivity the characteristic attached to the object to qualify it is always chosen by the speaker himself.

Through long and repeated use epithets become fixed: true love, merry Christmas.

Semantically there should be differentiated two main groups, the biggest of them being affective (they serve to convey the emotional evaluation of the object by the speaker: nasty, magnificent, etc.). The second group -figurative or transferred - is formed of metaphors, metonymies, similes expressed by adjectives: the smiling sun, the frowning cloud, the sleepless pillow, the tobacco-stained smile, a ghost­like face, a dreamlike experience.

1. She was a faded white rabbit of a woman.

3. He loved the after swim salt-and-sunshine smell of her hair.

4. He acknowledged an early-afternoon customer with a be-with-you-in-a-minute look.

Hyperbole - a SD in which emphasis is achieved through deliberate exaggeration. When it is directed the opposite way when some feature is intentionally underrated, we deal with understatement.

1. Her family is one aunt about a thousand years old.

2. We danced on the handkerchief-big space between the speak­easy tables,

3. The rain had thickened, fish could have swum through the air.

4. She wore a pink hat, the size of a button.

Oxymoron - a combination of two semantically contradictory notions, that helps to emphasize contradictory qualities simultaneously existing in the described phenomenon as a unity. Originality of oxymoron becomes especially evident in non-attributive structures: the street damaged with improvements, silence was louder than thunder.

1. There were some bookcases of superbly unreadable books.

2. He behaved pretty lousily to her.

3. The lightless light looked down from the night sky.

4. It was an opensecret.

5. Their bitter-sweet union did not last long.

6. You have got two beautiful bad examples for parents.

7. The garage was full of nothing. 9. She was a damned nice woman. Too.

Antonomasia – a lexical SD in which a proper is used instead of a common noun or vice versa, i.e. a SD, in which the nominal meaning of a proper name is suppressed by its logical meaning or the logical meaning acquires the new - nominal - component.

"He took little satisfaction in telling each Mary, shortly after arrived, something...." The attribute "each", used with the name, turns it into a common noun denoting any female. Here we deal with a case of antonomasia of the first type.

 

antonomasia of the first type.

Another type of antonomasia we meet when a common noun serves as an individualizing name: "There are three doctor's in anillness like yours. I don't mean only myself, my partner and the radiologist who does your X-rays, the three I'm referring to are Dr. Rest, Dr. Diet and Dr. Fresh Air." Still another type of antonomasia is presented by the so-called "speaking names": Mr. Snake, Mr, Surface.

1. Her mother is perfectly unbearable. Never met such a Gorgon.

2. A stout middle-aged man, with enormous owl-eyed spectacles was sitting on the edge of a great table. I turned to him. "Don't ask me," said Mr. Owl Eyes washing his hands of the whole matter.

3. Now let me introduce you - that's Mr. What's-his-name, you remember him, don't you? And over there in the corner, that's the Major, and there's Mr. What-do-you-call-him, and that's an American.

 

Lexico-Syntactital Stylistic Devices.

Antithesis – a semantic opposition emphasized by its realization in similar structures. The main function is to stress the heterogeneity of the described phenomenon, to show that the latter is a dialectal unity of two (or more) opposing features:

1. Some people have much to live on but little to live for.

2. If we don't know who gains by his death, we do know who loses by it.

Climax – a SD in which next word combination (clause, sentence) logically more important or emotionally stronger and more explicit There are three types of climax: logical, emotive and quantitative.

1. She felt better, immensely better.

2. For that one instant there was no else in the room, in the house, in the world, besides themselves.

3. Like a well, like a tomb, the prison had no knowledge of the brightness outside.

Anticlimax – climax suddenly interrupted by an unexpected turn of the thought which defeats the expectations of the reader and ends in complete semantic reversal ofthe emphasized idea.

1. He was inconsolable - for an afternoon.

2. Secretly, after the nightfall, he visited the home of the Prime Minister. He examined it from top to bottom. He measured the doors and windows. He took up the flooring He inspected the plumbing. He examined the furniture. He found nothing.

Simile – an imaginative comparison of two unlike objects belonging to two different classes.

Children! Breakfast is as good as any other meal and I won't hear you gobbling like wolves.

Litotes – a two-component structure in which two negations are joined to give a positive evaluation.

1. He said this in a voice not empty of self-love.

2. He had a confidence in the world, and not without reason

3. I felt I wouldn't say "no" to a cup of tea.

Periphrasis – using a roundabout form of expression instead of a simpler one, i.e. using a more or less complicated syntactical structure instead of a word.

1. The hospital was crowded with the surgically interesting products of the fighting in America.

2. I took my obedient feet from him.

3. She was still fat after childbirth; the destroyer of her figure sat at the head of the table.

 

Syntactical Level.

Rhetorical question - a peculiar interrogative construction which semantically remains a statement.

One of he most prominent places belongs to repetition - recurrence of the same word, word combination, phrase for two or more times. According to the place, which the repeated unit occupies in the sentence {utterance), repetition is classified into several types:

1) Anaphora: a..., a..., a .... The main function - to create the background for the non-repeated unit.

2) Epiphora: ... a, ... a, ...a. The main function is to add stress to the final words of the sentence.

3) Framing:a... ...a. The function is to elucidate the notion mentioned in the beginning of the sentence. Between two appearances of the repeated unit there comes the developing middle part of the sentence which explains and clarifies what was introduced in the beginning, so that the time it is used for the second time its semantics is concretized and specified.

4) Catch repetition:...a, a... . Specification of the semantics occurs here too, but on a more modest level.

5) Chain repetition: ...a, a...b, b...c, c... The effect is of the smoothly developing logical reasoning.

6) Ordinary repetition. Emphasizes both the logical and the emotional meanings of the repeated word or phrase.

7) Successive repetition: ... a, a,a .... The most emphatic type of repetition, which signifies the peak of emotions of the speaker.

Suspense- a deliberate postponement of the completion of the sentence. Technically, suspense is organized with the help of introducing less important facts and details first, while the expected information of major importance is reserved till the end of the sentence (utterance)

Parallel constructions - a purely syntactical type of repetition, here we deal with the repetition of the structure of several successive sentences. Reversed parallelism is called chiasmus. The second part of chiasmus is inversion of the first construction.

1. I wanted to knock over the table and hit him until my arm had no more strength in it, then give him the boot, give him the boot, give him the boot - I drew a deep breath.

2. Now he understood. He understood many things. One can be a person first. A man first and then a black man or a white man.

3. I might as well see the facts: good-bye Susan, good-bye a big car,good-bye a big house, good-byepower, good-bye the silly handsome dreams.

4.1wake up and 1 am alone and I walk round Warley and I'm alone; and I talk with people and I'm along and I look at his facewhen I'm home and it's dead.

5. To think better of it would be to slight a lady, to slight a lady would be to deficient in chivalry towards the sex, and chivalry towards the sex is a part of my character.

6. He ran away from the battle. He was an ordinary human being that didn't want to kill or to be killed. So he ran away from the battle.

7. Obviously this is a streptococcal infection. Obviously.

8. He looked at me and I looked at him.

Inversion - a SD in which the direct word order is changed either completelyso that the predicate (predicative) precedes the subject or partially so that the object precedes the subject-predicate pair. Correspondingly, we differentiate between a partial and complete inversion.

Detachment –a SD based on singling out a secondary member of the sentence with the help of punctuation (intonation).

1. She was crazy about you. In the beginning.

2. Women are not made for attack. Wait they must.

3. Out came the chase - in went the horses - on sprang the boys - in got the travelers.

4. How many pictures of new journeys over pleasant country of resting places under the free broad sky - how many tones of that one well-remembered voice, how many glimpses ofthe form, the fluttering dress, the hair that waived so gaily in the wind - how many visions of what had been and what he hoped was yet to be - rose up before him in the old, dull, silent church!

Ellipsis -deliberate omission of at least one member of the sentence. In contemporary prose it is mainly used in dialogue where ii is consciously employed by the author to reflect the natural omissions characterizing oral colloquial speech.

One-member sentences –sentences consisting only of

which is semantically self-sufficient. Isolated verbs cannot be considered one member sentences as they always rely on the context for their semantic fulfillment and are thus heavily elliptisized sentences.

Break - reflects the emotional or/and psychological state of the speaker: a sentence may be broken because the speaker's emotions prevent him from finishing it. Another cause of the break is the desire to cut short the information with which the sentence began.

1.In manner, close and dry. In voice, husky and low. In face, watchful behind a blind.

2. She merely looked at him weakly. The wonder of him! Her beauty of love! Her desire toward him!

3. "I just work here," he said softly. "If I didn't -" he let the right hang in the air, and kept on smiling.

 


Date: 2016-03-03; view: 2403


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