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Ex.2. Translate the following expressions into Russian.

Unit 2

21-st Century




What is goal-setting? Who is involved into a goal-setting process?

How can managers keep track of progress toward achievement of goals? Who is held accountable for achieving goals?

Comment on the saying: “If you fail to plan, you plan to fail.”

Read the case “Mike loses his leadership”. Why do you think does his goal-setting fail?

Mike sets individual objectives monthly, and he allocates all the work to people as it comes in. He tends to split large tasks into small sections, and give these to individuals. He has always tried to set work appropriate to people’s skills and experience. One day, he notices that Rachel is doing work he had given to Tom. On further investigation, he discovers that this is happening all the time – people are reallocating work behind his back so they can all do the tasks they like best.

Mike has lost control, as he has focused on the task and fragmenting it into subtasks. He has lost sight of the overall team and the advantages of working as one. Setting objectives is good, but he needs to be more specific so people know not to reallocate work.

Reading 1

Key Management Responsibilities:

Developing Goals


The first responsibility of management is to give others vision and the ability to perform. Such vision can be established by means of a total system of network of goals. Goals must satisfy several criteria in order to ensure that they provide individuals with the kind of focus, direction, and understanding they need to perform well. The acronym “S.M.A.R.T” identifies the key criteria for effective goals. Each should be specific enough for focus and feedback, meaningful enough to motivate individuals, accepted by the participants, realistic yet challenging, and time-framed.

The benefits are numerous. Goals that are “S.M.A.R.T” and challenging provide consistency throughout the organization, a blueprint for effectiveness.They ensure that individuals focus on achieving the organization’s goals rather than on satisfying their own needs. Effective goals provide a basis for cooperation and team work. They ensure that the efforts of the different units in the organization are coordinated. Lastly, they are an integral part of the decision-making process in that they provide decision-makers with the criteria for generating and evaluating options.

Despite the advantages that a total system of goals provides, there are still challenges for management. In areas where output or performance is not easily measured, such as service or management, defining specific goals is more difficult. In addition, goals that are too challenging can cause stress and burnout for the participants. Finally, goals that are too narrow in focus can be counterproductive.

As significant as these challenges are, they have not diminished the commitment of organizations to develop effective goal-based systems. To achieve the full impact of these systems, certain conditions must be met. First separate goals must be woven into a system or a network. Goals are most effective when they are defined for every task and area of the organization and where they all work in synergy to move the organization toward achieving its purpose.

Second, goals must be prioritized. Organizations have complex, sometimes competing goals. Care must be taken to establish priorities, identifying which goals are more important.

Third, benchmarking, or setting goals from the outside in, has become an imported management task in the 1990s. Comparing goals of other companies and copying what they do to achieve them is a process that improves the effectiveness of individuals and organizations alike. Rather than reject methods that were: “not invented here”, managers are looking to openly benchmark their activities against the best-performing companies to ensure that their goals are the right ones.

Finally, building flexibility into the system is essential. Goals must be reviewed and revised to ensure that they are the right ones for the changing environment.

Ex.1. Add nouns to form collocations with the following adjectives:











Ex.2. Translate the following expressions into Russian.

Date: 2016-03-03; view: 1396

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