Besides the called conceptions of truth there should be mentioned some more.
The fideistic conception asserts the truth is, what human trusts in. Itís trivial enough, for if I trust in something, it becomes a truth for me. And on the contrary, if I donít, it isnít the truth for me in any case, in spite of any arguments. All the arguments are means to make me to believe in. This conception is purely subjective.
The conventional conception says that the truth is, whatitís accepted to consider the truth. For all socially considerable truths (including scientific ones) itís also quite trivial. Something, being accepted by scientists, scholars and wide society on the whole on some or other causes (or accordingly with some or other criteria), is regarded by future generations taciturnly, without discussions. It becomes a socially recognized truth and is handed to junior generation as the inviolable verity; in another case it simply disappears from the horizons of cognition.
The phenomenologic conceptions proceed from the point that the truth is obviousness (look the chapter dedicated to the phenomenology).
Different approaches to the problem of truth can be also united in the so-called integral conception of truth, according to which all the existing truths may be shared by pairs of the opposite attributes (inner-outer, individual-collective) into four classes.
Buddhist and Vedantic philosophy; phenomenology; neoplatonism;
the philosophy of Kant; freudism;
positive (natural) science etc.
cultural anthropology; Confucianism;
the history philosophy
of Spengler or Toynbee etc.
The theory of systems; sociology;
formational approaches to the philosophy of history etc.
The classical (correspondent) conception of truth gets into the second square; the fideistic, phenomenologic and coherent conceptions into the first square; the conventinal into the third; the instrumentalist approach into the fourth.
Thus the integral conception of truth allows to fulfill a classification of different approaches to the problems of epistemology, to clear up correlation and supplementation between different view on the problem of truth. It demonstrates also that the reality, we can cognize, is much wider than that represented by the narrow scientist approach of positivism .
Control questions and exercises
1. Point out strong and weak sides of the Compteís law of three stages.
2. Is the principle of submission of imagination to observation always fulfilled?
3. In which way correlate one with another a cognizable and an incognizable?
4. What is the principle of thinking economy? Give arguments pro and contra this principle.
5. What are verification and falsification? Can they provide a reliability of results?
6. What are the true, false and senseless statements from the neopositivists viewpoint?
7. What are conceptual linguistical frameworks? Do they exist in the medical science (mathematics, physics, biology and so on)?
8. What is according to the Wittgenstein's philosophy of everyday language a source of most philosophical problems?
9. How do correspond to one another an absolute realism and a successively carried out solipsism?
10. In which way is in the Pierce's philosophy the contradiction between the pluralism of truths as ways of aims achievement and a postulate of existing of only one single truth took off?
11. How does W. James ground a pluralistic character of the Universe?
12. Why according to W. James is expedient to trust in God?
13. What is the truth according to different conceptions of truth?
14. What is the difference between instrumentalism and/a conceptual pragmatism?
15. What are problems of the corresponding conception of truth? Give examples.
16. What are problems of the pragmatical, consistent, phenomenological, semantical conceptions of truth?
17. A village barber shaves all men in the village except those who shave themselves. Who shaves the barber? Ground your answer.
18. What is an operational definition of concept? What problems arise there with?
19. How do the theoretical and empirical components in scientific knowledge and cognition correlate?