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B. Expressing Past and Present

UNIT 4Past simple (I did)

a) Study this example:

Tom: Look! It's raining again. Ann: Oh no, not again. It rained all day yesterday too. Rained is the past simple tense. We use the past simple to talk about actions or situations in the past.

- I very much enjoyed the party.

- Mr. Edwards died ten years ago.

- When I livedin Manchester, I worked in a bank.

b) Very often the past simple ends in - ed:

- We invitedthem to our party but they decided not to come.

- The police stopped me on my way home last night.

- She passedher examination because she studied very hard.

But many important verbs are irregular. This means that the past simple does not end in -ed.

For example:

leave —> left We all leftthe party at 11 o'clock.

go —> wentYesterday I went to London to see a friend of mine.

cost —> cost This house cost£35,000 in 1980.

The past of the verb be (am/is/are) is was/were:

I / he / she / it waswe/you/they were I was angry because Tom and Ann were late.

c) In past simple questions and negatives we use did/didn't + the infinitive
(do/open/rain etc.):

it raineddid it rain? it didn't rain

- Ann: Did you go out last night, Tom?

Tom: Yes, I went to the cinema. But I didn't enjoy the film.

- When did Mr Edwards die?

- What did you do at the week-end?

- We didn't invite her to the party, so she didn't come.

- Why didn'tyou phone me on Tuesday?

Note that we normally use did/didn't with have:

- Did you have time to write the letter?

- I didn't have enough money to buy anything to eat.

But we do not use did with the verb be (was/were):

- Why wereyou so angry?

- They weren't able to come because they werevery busy.

- Was Tom at work yesterday?

Exercises

4.1 In this exercise you have to read a sentence about the present and then write a sentence about the past.

Example: Tom usually gets up at 7.30. Yesterday he got up at 7.30.

1. Tom usually wakes up early. Yesterday morning …………………………………..

2. Torn usually walks to work. Yesterday ……………………………………………..

3. Tom is usually late for work. Yesterday …………………………………………….

4. Tom usually has a sandwich for lunch. Yesterday …………………………………..

5. Tom usually goes out in the evening. Yesterday evening …………………………...

6. Tom usually sleeps very well. Last night ……………………………………………

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4.2This time you have to put one of these verbs in each sentence:

hurt teach spend sell throw fall catch buy cost

Example: I was hungry, so I boughtsomething to eat in the shop.

1. Tom's father ……………... him how to drive when he was 17.

2. Don ………...……. down the stairs this morning and ……………… his leg.

3. We needed some money so we ……….… our car.

4. Ann …………….….. a lot of money yesterday. She …………………. a dress which …………………………..……. £50.

5. Jim …………….…… the ball to Sue who ……………………..…. it.

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4.3 In this exercise you have to write questions. A friend has just come back from holiday and you are asking him about it.

Examples: where /go? Where did you go? .

food / good? Was the food good? .

1. how long / stay there? ………………………………………………………….………

2. stay in a hotel? ……………………………………………………………..…………..

3. go alone? ……………………………………………………………..………………...

4. how / travel? ……………………………………………………………..……………..

5. the weather/fine? …………………………………………………………….………....

6. what / do in the evenings? ……………………………………………………………...

7. meet any interesting people? …………………………………………………………...

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4.4 This time you have to put the verb into the correct form. All the sentences are past.

Example: I didn’t go (not/go) to work yesterday because I wasn’t (not/be) very well.

1. Tom ………………. (not/shave) this morning because he ………….. (not/have) time.

2. We …………………. (not/eat) anything because we ………………. (not/be) hungry.

3. I …………………. (not/rush) because I ……………. (not/be) in a hurry.

4. She ……………… (not/be) interested in the book because she ……………………….. (not/understand) it.


UNIT 5Past continuous (I was doing)

a)Study this example situation:

Yesterday Tom and Jim played tennis. They began at 10 o'clock and finished at 11 o'clock. What were they doingat 10.30? They were playing tennis (at 10.30). 'They were playing' means that they were in the middle of playing tennis. They had started playing but they hadn't finished. This is the past continuous tense: I / he / she was we / they / you were

We use the past continuous to say that someone was in the middle of doing something at a certain time. The action or situation had already started before this time but hadn't finished:

- This time last year I was living in Brazil.

- What were you doing at 10 o'clock last night?

b) The past continuous does not tell us whether an action was finished or not. Perhaps it was finished, perhaps not. Compare:

- Tom was cooking the dinner. (past continuous ) = He was in the middle of cooking the dinner and we don't know whether he finished cooking it.

- Tom cookedthe dinner, (past simple) = He began and finished it.

c) We often use the past continuous (I was doing) and the past simple (I did) together to say that something happened in the middle of something else:

- Tom burnt his hand when he was cooking the dinner.

- I saw Jim in the park. He was sitting on the grass and readinga book.

- It was raining when I got up.

- While I was working in the garden, I hurtmy back..

But to say that one thing happened after another, use the past simple:

- Yesterday evening Tom was having a bath when the phone rang. He gotout of the bath and answered the phone.

Compare:

- When Tom arrived, we were having dinner. (past continuous) = We had already started dinner before Tom arrived.

- When Tom arrived, we had dinner. (past simple) = Tom arrived and then we had dinner.

Note:There are some verbs (for example know) which are not normally used in continuous tenses.

 


Exercises

 

5.1 Here is a list of some things that Ann did yesterday (and the times at which she did them):

1. 8.45-9.15 had breakfast 4. 12.45-1.30 had lunch
2. 9.15-10.00 read the newspaper 5. 2.30-3.30 washed some clothes
3. 10.00-12.00 cleaned her flat 6. 4.00-6.00 watched television

Now write sentences saying what she was doing at these times:

1. At 9 o'clock she was having breakfast.. 4. At 1 o'clock ………………………
2. At 9.30 she ………………………... 5. At 3 o'clock ………………………
3. At 11 o'clock …………………….... 6. At 5 o'clock ………………………

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5.2 A group of people were staying in a hotel. One evening the fire alarm rang. Use the words in brackets to make sentences saying what each person was doing at the time. Example: (Don / have / a bath). Don was having a bath

1. (Ann / write / a letter in her room) Ann ………………………………………….

2. (George / get / ready to go out) George ………………………………………….

3. (Carol and Dennis / have / dinner) Carol and Dennis ………..…………………..

4. (Tom / make / a phone call) Tom ………………………………………………..

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5.3 Make sentences from the words in brackets. Put the verbs into the correct form, past simple (I did) or past continuous (Iwas doing).

Example: (I/fall/asleep when I/watch /television) I fell asleep when I was watching television.

1. (the phone / ring / when I / have / a shower) The phone …………………………......

2. (it / begin / to rain when I / walk / home) …………………………………………..…

3. (we / see / an accident when we / wait / for the bus) ……………...………………..…

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5.4 Put the verb into the correct form, past continuous or past simple.

Example: While Tom was cooking (cook) the dinner, the phone rang (ring).

1. George …………… (fall) off the ladder while he,………… (paint) the ceiling.

2. Last night I ………….. (read) in bed when suddenly I ………… (hear) a scream.

3. ……………. (you/watch) television when I phoned you?

4. Ann ………….. (wait) for me when I ………….. (arrive).

5. I ……………… (not/drive) very fast when the accident ……………… (happen).

6. I ……………… (break) a plate last night. I …………..….. (do) the washing-up when it ……………………………………… (slip) out of my hand.

7. Tom ……………. (take) a photograph of me while I ………………… (not/look).

8. We ……………… (not/go) out because it …………….. (rain).

9. What ………………. (you/do) at this time yesterday?


UNIT 6Present perfect (I have done)

 

a) Study this example situation:

Tom is looking for his key. He can't find it. He has lost his key. 'He has lost his key' means that he lost it a short time ago and he still hasn't got it. This is the present perfect (simple) tense: I/we/they/you have(= I've etc.) he/she has (= he's etc.) I (etc.) haven't have you (etc.) he/she hasn't has he/she

We form the present perfect with have/has + the past participle. The past participle often ends in -ed (opened, decided) but many important verbs are irregular (lost, written, doneetc.).

b) When we use the present perfect there is a connection with the present:

- I've lost my key. (= I haven't got it now.)

- Jim has gone to Canada. (= He is in Canada or on his way there now.)

- Oh dear, I've forgotten her name. (= I can't remember it now.)

- Have you washedyour hair? (= is it clean now?)

c) We often use the present perfect to give new information or to announce a recent happening:

- I've lost my key. Can you help me look for it?

- Do you know about Jim? He's gone to Canada.

- Ow! I've burnt myself.

You can use the present perfect with just (= a short time ago):

- 'Would you like something to eat?' 'No, thanks. I'vejust had lunch.'

- Hello, haveyou just arrived?

You can use the present perfect with already to say that something has happened sooner than expected:

- 'Don't forget to post the letter, will you?' 'I've already posted it.'

- 'When is Tom going to start his new job?' 'He has already started.'

d) Study the difference between gone to and been to:

- Ann is on holiday. She has goneto Italy. (= She is there now or she is on her way there.)

- Tom is back in England now. He has beento Italy. (= He was there but now he has come back.)


Exercises

 

6.1 You are writing a letter to a friend and giving news about people you both know. Use the words given to make sentences and put the verb into the correct form.

Example: Phil / find a new job Phil has found a new job. .

Dear Chris,

Lots of things have happened since I last wrote to you.

1. Charles / go / Brazil Charles ………………………………………………………….

2. Jack and Jill / decide / to get married …………………………………………………..

3. Suzanne / have / a baby ………………………………………………………………...

4. Monica / give up / smoking …………………………………………………………….

5. George / pass / his driving-test …………………………………………………………

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6.2 In this exercise you have to read the situation and then write a suitable sentence. Use the verb given.

Example: Tom is looking for his key. He can't find it. (lose) He has lost his key. .

1. Ann's hair was dirty. Now it is clean. (wash) She ……..……………………………..

2. Tom was 80 kilograms. Now he weighs 70. (lose weight) …...……………………...

3. The car has just stopped because there isn't any more petrol in the tank. (run out of petrol) ……………………………………………………………………………….……

4. Yesterday Bill was playing football. Now he can't walk and his leg is in plaster. (break) …………….……………………………………………………………………...

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6.3 This time you have to use just.Answer the questions using the words given.

Example: Would you like something to eat. (no thank you / I / just / have / dinner)

No thank you. I’ve just had dinner. .

1. Have you seen John anywhere? (yes / I /just / see / him) Yes …………………………

2. Has Ann phoned yet? (yes / she / just / phone) ………………………………………...

3. Would you like a cigarette? (no thanks / I / just / put / one out) ……………………….

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6.4 In this exercise you have to write sentences with already.

Example: Don't forget to post that letter. 'I’ve already posted it. .

1. Don't forget to phone Tom. I …………………….…………………….…

2. Why don't you read the paper? ………………...…………………………….

3. Shall I pay the waiter? No, I ……………..………………………….

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6.5 This time you have to put in beenor gone.

Example: 'Where's Ann?' 'She's on holiday. She has gone to Italy. '

1. Hello! I've just ……………………. to the shops. Look! I've bought lots of things.

2. Jim isn't here at the moment. He's …………………………...... to the shops.

3. 'Are you going to the bank?' - 'No, I've already ………………………… to the bank.'


 

UNIT 7Present perfect with how longand past

simple with when

Sinceandfor

a)Use the past simple (I did)to ask or say when something happened:

- A: When didit startraining?

B:It startedraining at one o'clock / an hour ago.

-A: When didTom and Ann first meet?

B: They first met when they were at school / a long time ago.

Use the present perfect (I have done / I have been doing)to ask or say how long something has been happening (up to the present):

- A: How long hasit been raining?

B:It's been raining since one o'clock / for an hour.

-A: How long haveTom and Ann knowneach other?

B: They've knowneach other since they were at school / for a long time.

b) Sinceandfor

We use both sinceand forto say how long something has been happening:

- I've been waiting for you since 8 o'clock.

- I've been waiting for you for two hours.

We use sincewhen we say the beginning of the period (8 o'clock).

We use forwhen we say the period of time (two hours).

 

 

since 8 o'clock 1977 Monday Christmas 12 May lunchtime April we arrived for two hours a week ten minutes five years three days a long time six months ages

- She's been working here since April.(= from April until now)

She's been working here for six months.(not 'since six months')

- I haven't seen Tom since Monday.(= from Monday until now)

I haven't seen Tom for three days.(not 'since three days')

We do not use for in expressions with all (all day / all morning / all week / all my lifeetc.):

- I've lived here all my life.(not 'for all my life')


Exercises

 

7.1 In this exercise you have to write questions with how long and when.

Example: It is raining. (how long /it / rain?) How long has it been raining? .

(when / it / start / raining?) When did it start raining? .

1. Ann is learning Italian.

(how long / she / learn / Italian?) ……………………………………………………

(when / she / begin / learning Italian?) ………………………………………………

2. I know Tom.

(how long / you / know / Tom?) …………………………………………………….

(when / you / first / meet / Tom?) …………………………………………………...

3. Bob and Alice are married.

(how long / they / be / married?) …………………………………………………….

(when / they / get / married?) ……………………………………….……………….

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7.2 In this exercise you have to put in sinceorfor.

Example: Tom and I have known each other for six months.

1. It's been raining ............................................... I got up this morning.

2. Tom's father has been a policeman ........................................ 20 years.

3. Have you been learning English ....................................... a long time?

4. ....................................... Christmas, the weather has been quite mild.

5. Ann has been on holiday ................................................... three days.

6. That's a very old car. I've had it .................................................. ages.

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7.3 This time you have to make a new sentence beginning in the way shown.

Examples: I know Tom. I first met him six months ago. I have known him for six months.

It's been raining since 2 o'clock. It started. raining at two o’clock. .

1. Tom's ill. He became ill three days ago. He has ………………...………………….

2. We have been married for five years. We got ………………………………………

3. Jim has a beard. He grew it ten years ago. He has ………………………………….

4. He has been in France for three weeks. He went …………………………………...

5. He has had his new car since February. He bought ………………………………....

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7.4In this exercise you have to imagine that two people are talking. You have to make sentences with It's ... since ...

Example: A: Do you often go on holiday? (no / five years)

B: No, it’s five years since I went on holiday. .

1. A: Do you often eat in restaurants? (no / six months)

B: No, it ……………………………………………………………………………

2. A: Does it often snow here? (no / years)

3. B: No, ………..........................................................................................................


Exercises

Present and past


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