Home Random Page




1. draftv (write or compose ‘draft a contract, )

2. issuen (a point in dispute between two or more parties)

issuev (to officially make a statement)

3. debaten ( dispute) debate v (to discuss a subject formally)

4. amendmentn(a formal revision or addition proposed or made to a statute)

5. implementv(put into practice, bring into force)

6. commencev(begin) commencementn (the beginning of something)

7. access ton(means of entering, approach)

8. pass v(to enact a legislative bill, an act, a resolution)

9. principlen(idea behind sth; a basic rule, law, or doctrine )

Reading notes:

White paper –an official report from the British government, usually explaining the government’s ideas and plans concerning a particular subject before it suggest a new law in Parliament.

Easter – 1. Easter Sundaya special day in the Christian religion in March or April when Christians remember the date of Jesus and celebrate his return to life. 2. the period just before and afterEaster Sunday, including Good Friday and Easter Monday, which are public holidays in the UK: the Easter holidays.

disabled – people who are physically disabled.

Exercise 1. Read the following sentences, notice carefully the active words in bold, and translate the sentences into Russian.


1. Eva’s busy drafting her speech for the conference.

2. He drafted a letter to the bank manager.

3. The great majority of Acts of Parliament are introduced by the Government – these are initially drafted by lawyers in the civil service who are known as Parliamentary Counsel to the Treasury.


1. She issueda statement denying all knowledge of the affair.

2. The US State department issuesmillions of passports each year.

3. On some issuesthe Government will first seek the response of interested parties by the publication of a consultative paper.


1. His conclusions are hotly debated( = argued about strongly).

2.In fact in the House of Commons there will only be an actual further debate onthe Bill as a whole if at least six MPs request it

3. Those MPs who wish to speak in the debate must catch the Speaker’s eye, since the Speaker controls all debates and no-one may speak without being called on by the Speaker.


1. He seized the chance to make amendments to the resolution.

2. If the Bill started life in the House of Commons it is now passed to the House of Lords where it goes through the same five stages outlined above and, if the House of Lords makes amendments to the Bill, then it will go back to the House of Commons for it to consider those amendments.

3. In spite of Government control of the Commons, Parliament is not a mere rubber stamp, because it gives opportunities for members to question, criticize, publicize, explain and amend the detailed provisions or the bill, and few bills emerge without at least some amendments.


1. The committee’s suggestions will be implemented immediately.

2. The plan was successfully implemented.

3. However there has been a growing trend for Acts of Parliament not to be implementedimmediately.


1. Work will commence on the new building immediately.

2. The planes commenced bombing at night.

3. Instead the Act itself states the date when it will commenceor pass responsibility on to the appropriate minister to fix the commencement date.

Access to

1.The only means of access to the building is along a muddy track.

2. The part of the Act giving employment rights was mostly brought into force in 1996, some parts of the Act which give disabled people rights to access to services were not going to be law until the year 2004.

3. Some parts which relate to access to transport may not be law until 2010.


1. Congress has debated whether to pass a balanced-budget amendment to the Constitution.

2. Parliament has passed a law to restrict immigration.

3. It can be seen that with all these stages it usually takes several months for a Bill to be passed.


1. The general principle is that education should be available to all children up to the age of 16.

2. The project worked on the principle that each person’s experience was equally valuable.

3. This is the main debate on the whole Bill in which MPs debate the principlesbehind the Bill.

Date: 2016-01-14; view: 649

<== previous page | next page ==>
The legislative process | The nature of precedent
doclecture.net - lectures - 2014-2018 year. Copyright infringement or personal data (0.002 sec.)