Read the passage and guess the meaning of the words in bold. then use the words to complete the gaps in the sentences below
Advertising dates back well over 2,000 years, and for centuries, adverts simply gave information: one of the earliest surviving ones is a sign painted on a wall in ancient Rome showing property to let. The big change occurred in the late nineteenth century. Technological developments had made mass production possible, which meant firms could make products in large numbers, of roughly the same quality, and at roughly the same price. Companies then found they had to stimulate demand in order to sell these products. At the same time, in some countries, there were plenty of people with money to spend onluxuries and other inessential goods. This created opportunities for companies to make and sell these at a much greater profit. So a lot of advertising focused on luxury goods .Another reason for the change in the nature of advertising was that more and more businesses were set up, making similar products, and in the face of this competition, manufacturers needed to advertise in order to survive. This was really the beginning of advertising designed to persuade people to buy. And when Freud's theories about our subconscious began to be applied in the advertising industry in the 1920s, advertising became very effective.
It tries to make people want a certain item, let's say a car. If we only bought goods for practical reasons, manufacturers would soon go out of business. So they appeal to our emotions in their advertising, to make us believe that if we buy that particular car, we'll feel good, we'll be in the fashion, people will admire us. Instead of focusing on the car's mechanical properties, the advertising is about thebenefits that we hope to gain.
1. Early advertising provided only ______.
2. In the late nineteenth century, manufacturers advertised because they needed to increase the ________ for their goods.
3. Companies were able to make a large _________ by selling luxury goods.
4. Increased ______ meant that companies risked going out of business if they didn’t advertise.
5. Persuasive advertising tries to involve people’s ______.
6. Persuasive advertising stresses the ______ of buying particular products.
1. Read the text» What is promotion?” and answer the questions:
1. What is the difference between advertising and promotion?
2. What are advertising media?
3. Why do people think that the number one medium is TV?
4. How do consumers benefit from advertising expenditures?
5. What kind of advertising do businesses prefer?
6. What costs do advertisers have to cover? Why is advertising so expensive?
WHAT IS PROMOTION?
What do you think of when you hear the word promotion? Most people think of advertising.
But promotion is much more than just advertising. Promotion is an attempt by marketers to persuade others to participate in an exchange with them. Marketers use many different tools to promote their products and services. Besides advertising, they use personal selling, word of mouth, public relations, publicity, and sales promotion to inform potential consumers about their organization and its goods and services. This combination of promotional tools is called the company’s promotional mix.
One reason most people mistake promotion for advertising is that they do not understand the differences among promotional tools such as advertising, personal selling, publicity, and word of mouth. Advertising is limited to paid, no personal communication through various media by organizations and individuals who are in some way identified in the advertising message. Word of mouth is not a form of advertising because it does not go through a medium (newspaper, TV, etc.), it is not paid for, and it is personal. Publicity is different from advertising in that media space for publicity is not paid for. Personal selling is face-to-face communication and does not go through a medium; thus, it is not advertising. Now that you understand what advertising is not, let’s look at what advertising is .Anyone who watches television, listens to the radio, or reads magazines cannot help but notice the importance of advertising in our lives.