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Tips for Assigning Countries/Committees to your Students

Newer delegates may feel more comfortable in larger committees, as they cannot be singled out. Experienced delegates will most likely enjoy smaller committees where they will speak more often.

Know your students' resources and strengths when pairing them as partners. Try to ensure that at least one delegate has computer access. Also, Model UN is a great way for English language learners to become acclimated to the language; but pairing two English language learners may cause frustration for both delegates. Try pairing a student who has stronger verbal skills with a less verbal student. This is an equally good tip for monolingual students.

Know your students' individual traits. Has this student ever backed out of a prior commitment? If so, a small committee may not be the perfect place to assign him/her. What students do in class is a good indication of what they will do in committee. If s/he can work independently, a smaller committee can be the perfect place. But you might also pair him/her with a student who may back out. An experienced delegate could then work alone better in a larger committee.

- See more at: http://unausa.org/global-classrooms-model-un/how-to-participate/model-un-preparation/country-assignments#sthash.8LyYzfhk.dpuf

Position Papers

 

Model UN Preparation Many conferences require that each delegation submit a position paper—an essay detailing your country's policies on the topics being discussed in your committee. Writing a position paper will help you organize your ideas so that you can share your country's position with the rest of the committee. If you conduct extensive research, a position paper should be easy to write. Most conferences that require position papers ask for them about one month before the conference so that staff members can read them and get a feel for the direction debate will take. If the conference you are attending does not require a position paper, you should still consider writing one to help you organize your research and prepare your speeches. Many delegates use their position papers as their opening remarks. View a sample position paper to help you write an effective position paper. How to Write a Position Paper Writing a position paper might appear to be a daunting task, especially for new delegates. But with enough research, you will find that writing a position paper will be easy and useful. Position papers are usually one to one-and-a-half pages in length. Your position paper should include a brief introduction followed by a comprehensive breakdown of your country's position on the topics that are being discussed by the committee. A good position paper will not only provide facts but also make proposals for resolutions. Many conferences will ask for specific details in a position paper, so be sure to include all the required information. Most conferences will provide delegates a background guide to the issue. Usually, the background guide will contain questions to consider. Make sure that your position paper answers these questions. A good position paper will include:
  • A brief introduction to your country and its history concerning the topic and committee;
  • How the issue affects your country;
  • Your country's policies with respect to the issue and your country's justification for these policies;
  • Quotes from your country's leaders about the issue;
  • Statistics to back up your country's position on the issue;
  • Actions taken by your government with regard to the issue;
  • Conventions and resolutions that your country has signed or ratified;
  • UN actions that your country supported or opposed;
  • What your country believes should be done to address the issue;
  • What your country would like to accomplish in the committee's resolution; and
  • How the positions of other countries affect your country's position.
Position Paper Tips
  • Keep it simple. To communicate strongly and effectively, avoid flowery wording and stick to uncomplicated language and sentence structure.
  • Make it official. Try to use the seal of your country or create an "official" letterhead for your position paper. The more realistic it looks, the more others will want to read it.
  • Get organized. Give each separate idea or proposal its own paragraph. Make sure each paragraph starts with a topic sentence.
  • Cite your sources. Use footnotes or endnotes to show where you found your facts and statistics. If you are unfamiliar with bibliographic form, look up the Modern Language Association (MLA) guidelines at your school's library.
  • Read and reread. Leave time to edit your position paper. Ask yourself if the organization of the paper makes sense and double-check your spelling and grammar.
  • Speech! Speech! Do you plan to make an opening statement at your conference? A good position paper makes a great introductory speech. During debate, a good position paper will also help you to stick to your country's policies.
  • Let the bullets fly. Try not to let your proposals become lost in a sea of information. For speechmaking, create a bulleted list of your proposals along with your most important facts and statistics so that you will not lose time looking for them during debate.
UNA-USA Classroom Activities Activity 4 - Writing the Position Paper

- See more at: http://unausa.org/global-classrooms-model-un/how-to-participate/model-un-preparation/position-papers#sthash.mlwDWiIm.dpuf



Flow of Debate

 

Model UN Preparation It is sometimes helpful to think of a Model UN conference as if it were a play in which delegates are the actors and Secretariat members are the directors. The storyline of a stage show is similar to what Model UNers call the "flow of debate" – the order in which events proceed during a Model UN conference. Just like scenes in a theatrical performance, debate unfolds in several different parts. The chart below shows the various stages of debate that take place during a Model UN simulation. Being familiar with how the action will proceed, from the first "scene" to the last, is an important way to prepare yourself for a Model UN conference. Roll Call The Chairperson will announce each country's name. After delegates hear their country, they should answer "present." Setting the Agenda When Model UN committees have more than one topic available, the body must set the agenda to begin working on one of these issues. At this time a delegate typically makes a motion, stating "The country of [name] moves to place [topic A] first on the agenda, followed by [topic B] and then [topic C]." Once the motion has been made, three delegations must speak in favor of the motion, and three other delegations will speak against it. These speeches should alternate between those in favor and those opposed. Once these six speeches have been given, a vote is taken. Setting the agenda requires a simple majority vote. Debate
Formal Debate: Formal debate revolves around a speakers list. The Chair begins by asking all delegates interested in addressing the other members to raise their placards. The Chair then chooses delegates to be placed on the speakers list. A country may only be on the speakers list once, but delegates may add their country to the end of the list after their speech. 1a. When the session begins, speeches focus on stating country positions and offering recommendations for action. 2a. After blocs have met, speeches focus on describing bloc positions to the entire body. 3a. Delegates now make statements describing their draft resolutions to the committee. 4a. Delegates try to garner more support through formal speeches and invite others to offer their ideas. 5a. Delegates make statements supporting or disagreeing with specific draft resolutions. 6a. Delegates present any amendments they have created. Informal Debate: Informal debate involves discussion outside of the speakers list. During moderated caucuses, the Chair calls on delegates one-by-one so that each can address the committee in short speeches. During unmoderated caucuses, the committee breaks for a temporary recess so that delegates may meet with each other and discuss ideas. 1b. After several countries state their positions, the committee breaks for caucuses (often in blocs) to develop regional positions. 2b. Writing begins as countries work together to compose draft resolutions. 3b. Countries and groups meet to gather support for specific draft resolutions. 4b. Delegates finalize draft resolutions. 5b. Draft-resolution sponsors build greater support for their resolution and look to incorporate others’ ideas through friendly amendments.

Close of Debate

Once the speakers list is exhausted, the committee automatically moves to voting. Also, once a delegate feels that his or her country's position is clear to others and that there are enough draft resolutions on the floor, he or she may make a motion to proceed into voting procedure by moving for the closure of debate.

Voting Procedures

Once a motion to close debate has been approved, the committee moves into voting procedure. Amendments are voted on first, then resolutions. Once all of the resolutions are voted on, the committee moves to the next topic on the agenda.

- See more at: http://unausa.org/global-classrooms-model-un/how-to-participate/model-un-preparation/flow-of-debate#sthash.DfhNGK7p.dpuf

Public Speaking

 

Model UN Preparation Public speaking is one of the most important skills you will use as a Model UN delegate. You will need to convey your member state's positions, help build consensus and formulate resolutions. Usually, the length of time a delegate is allowed to speak is set by the conference organizers. Delegates can make a motion to increase or decrease the time allotted to each speaker. If another delegate seconds the motion, then the committee will vote on changing the speaker's time. You will have numerous opportunities to speak in your committee during a Model UN simulation. The Chair will maintain a speakers list of delegates who would like to make formal speeches. During caucusing you will have an opportunity to speak informally to delegates in your committee, but it is still important to keep the principles of effective public speaking in mind. Although speaking is an important part of any Model UN simulation, many delegates fear speaking in front of a large group. The best way to cope with these fears is to be well-prepared. You should research as much as possible about your country and the issue the committee will be debating. You should be comfortable explaining your country's position and have ideas on what you would like to include in the committee's resolution. If you come to the conference prepared, you will be eager to speak in committee and project confidence. How to Make An Opening Speech
  • First, you should thank the presiding official by saying "Thank you Mr./ Madame/ Honorable Chair/ President..."
  • Then begin by providing a brief history on the issue as it relates to your country.
  • Speak about how the issue is currently affecting your country.
  • Provide your country's position on the issue. Include an explanation for your country's stance, such as economic or security concerns or political or religious ideology.
  • You may choose to give an explanation of how yourcountry's position relates to the positions of other member states such as the major powers or countries in your regional bloc.
  • You should discuss some of the past actions taken by the UN, member states and NGOs to address the issue.
  • Present ideas for a resolution, stressing your country's objectives for the resolution.
  • Talk about the role that NGOs or regional organizations have to play in addressing the issue.
  • Indicate to the committee members whether your country is willing to negotiate.
How to Make A Speech During Debate
  • Again, you should thank the presiding official by saying "Thank you Mr./ Madame/ Honorable Chair/ President..."
  • Encourage collaboration among member states by proposing ways that your country would be willing to work with other member states.
  • By referencing what other delegates have said, you can show support for your allies or indicate which proposals your country does not favor.
  • Present ideas for draft resolutions.
  • Explain why your country does or does not support other draft resolutions.
Public Speaking Tips
  • Prepare: Decide how you feel most comfortable delivering your speech. You may choose to use your position paper text as your opening speech or you may write out some key points. In time, you may feel comfortable speaking without any written notes at all. If you plan to use a word or phrase that is unfamiliar to you, make sure you learn its meaning and how to pronounce it properly.
  • Practice: Rehearsing your speech is the best way to perfect your public speaking skills. Try practicing in front of a teacher, a parent, or fellow Model UNers from your class or club. When you listen to a speech, provide constructive feedback rather than criticism. When someone critiques your speech, accept the feedback graciously and use it as a tool to strengthen your public speaking.
  • Consider your audience: Make your speech appropriate to the age and experience-level of the other delegates at the conference. Remember that the beginning of the speech should captivate your audience and make them want to hear more.
  • Eliminate unnecessary "filler" words: Fillers are words and phrases such as "umm," "well," "sort of," and "like". These words take away from the message you are trying to convey. Some additional fillers to avoid are "so," "you know," "I think," "just," and "uh."
  • Use meaningful pauses: Leaving a moment of silence between sentences can be a powerful public speaking tool. Pausing after an important point or before answering a question will help to hold the audience's attention. A pause can also give you time to formulate your next statement.
  • Breathe: Try to breathe from your diaphragm – the organ below your lungs that controls your respiration. You are breathing properly if you can see your abdomen rising and falling with each breath. Try to inhale and exhale completely.
  • Pace yourself: Don't talk too fast or too slow. Remember that most speakers have a tendency to talk too quickly.
  • Choose a powerful posture: Be aware of your posture when you speak. Slouching, tilting your head and crossing your arms or legs will take away from your message. Stand up straight, relax your shoulders, plant your feet firmly and keep your knees unlocked to help you communicate confidence.
  • Project your presence: Speaking in a low to medium volume can help to project authority, but make sure that you are speaking loud enough to be easily heard. Focus on speaking with enthusiasm and energy.
  • Gesture: It is worthwhile to use your face, hands, arms and body to help you communicate as long as your motions do not distract the audience from your speech.
  • Connect with your audience: Glance at your notes rather than reading them so that you can make eye contact with the other delegates. It is often helpful to speak directly to individual members of the audience.
  • Get to the point: Speak concisely so that your audience does not lose your main arguments among less-important details. Try not to speak in circles. Instead, go straight to your most important point.
  • Be positive: Rather than criticizing another point of view, critique it in a constructive way. Always provide alternatives and be sure to back up your arguments.

- See more at: http://unausa.org/global-classrooms-model-un/how-to-participate/model-un-preparation/public-speaking#sthash.tSWTu9gl.dpuf

Rules of Procedure

 

Model UN Preparation Like real UN bodies, Model UN committees have lengthy agendas and many delegates who want to convey their country's positions. To help maintain order, Model UN conferences adopt rules of procedure to establish when a delegate may speak and what he or she may address. Some conferences adopt a few simple rules, while others use lengthy and complex rules of procedure. Because each conference is independent – there is no governing body for Model UN – rules of procedure vary. A few conferences adapt their rules of procedure directly from the United Nations rules while most use variations of the Roberts Rules of Order. It is essential to familiarize yourself with the rules of each specific conference you plan to attend. At a Model UN conference, there is formal debate as well as informal debate, called caucusing. Formal Debate: During formal debate, the staff maintains a speakers list and delegates speak in the order they are listed. At this time, delegates have an opportunity to share their views with the entire committee. Delegates make speeches, answer questions, and introduce and debate resolutions and amendments. Formal debate is important to the committee's work. By not knowing the rules of procedure, delegates slow down the debate and hold back their committee's progress. Moderated Caucus: During a caucus, which is a temporary recess, the rules of procedure are suspended. To go to a moderated caucus, a delegate makes a motion to suspend debate and the committee votes. Caucusing helps to facilitate discussion, especially when there is a long speakers list. A moderated caucus is a mixture of both formal and informal debate. Anyone may speak if they raise their placard and are called on by the Chair. Unmoderated Caucus: In an unmoderated caucus, delegates meet informally with one another and the committee staff to discuss and negotiate draft resolutions, amendments and other issues. What are the rules and procedures at a Model UN conference? View a chart of basic Model UN points and motions. UNA-USA Classroom Activities
  • Activity 5 - Model UN Vocabulary
  • Activity 6 - Points and Motions: What do you say?
  • Activity 7 - Model UN Procedures
  • Activity 8 - Rules of Procedure Quiz

- See more at: http://unausa.org/global-classrooms-model-un/how-to-participate/model-un-preparation/rules-of-procedure#sthash.x1d2RKmT.dpuf

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Caucusing

 

Model UN Preparation Caucusing, or informal debate, is an important part of the Model UN simulation because it provides an opportunity for delegates to collaborate, negotiate and formulate draft resolutions. During a Model UN conference, caucuses can be either moderated or unmoderated. When a committee holds a moderated caucus, the Chair calls on delegates one at a time and each speaker briefly addresses the committee. During an unmoderated caucus, the committee breaks for a temporary recess from formal proceedings so that delegates can work together in small groups. To hold a caucus, a delegate must make a motion and the committee must pass the motion. Many delegates prefer to speak during a moderated caucus rather than being placed on the speaker's list. In a moderated caucus, speakers are usually able to convey one or two key points to the entire committee or share new ideas that have developed through the course of debate. A delegate sometimes chooses to make a motion for a moderated caucus if his or her name is close to the end of the speakers list. By speaking in a moderated caucus, delegates are able to address the committee much earlier. In most cases, more than half of committee time is used for unmoderated caucusing. Many delegates feel this is the easiest way for them to collaborate and start to formulate draft resolutions. Tips for Effective Caucusing
  • Enter the caucus with a plan in mind: Formulate ideas on what your country would like to see included in a resolution. Decide which clauses you are willing to negotiate on and which you are not.
  • Find delegates in your regional bloc: This is the easiest way to seek out allies. However, if you find that the group you are working with is not meeting your needs, do not be afraid to switch groups.
  • Provide ideas: Tell others what your country is hoping to achieve. If you do not agree with an idea, do not hesitate to say that it is against your country's policy.
  • Negotiate: While it is often necessary to give up something that you want, make sure that you are not giving up anything too important.
  • Listen: By listening to what others are saying you will able to build on other people's ideas and add more to the discussion. Listening also shows respect for each delegate in your group.
  • Do not interrupt: Allow other delegates to finish their thoughts rather than interrupting others in the middle of a sentence. It sometimes helps to write down your idea so that you can bring it up when the delegate is finished speaking.
  • Record ideas: Start to formulate a resolution in writing. Rather than waiting until the last minute, begin recording fellow delegates' ideas right away.
  • Be resourceful: By providing fellow delegates with resolution text, maps or information as they need it, you will show that you are valuable to the group.
  • Have one-on-one conversations: Speaking with an individual or in a small group is the best way to find out a delegate's position on an issue. Larger groups are better suited to brainstorming.
  • Stay calm: In caucuses, delegates can sometimes "lose their cool." Staying calm will not only help your group be more effective, but will be noticed by the conference staff. Always keep your voice at a normal level. If you see that you are becoming upset or raising your voice, excuse yourself from the group for a few minutes.
  • Use time effectively: Make sure you have enough time to hear everyone's ideas so that you can discuss them during formal debate. Try not to waste time arguing over small details that do not seriously affect the draft resolution.
  • Show respect: Never give orders or tell other delegates what they should or should not do. Be polite and treat all your fellow delegates with respect.
  • Provide constructive critique: Rather than negatively criticizing another delegate, focus on providing constructive critique. If you dislike an idea, try to offer an alternative. Critique ideas, not people.
  • Establish connections with other delegates: Although it can be tempting to call a fellow delegate "Pakistan," "Brazil" or "Sweden", you can form a better connection with a delegate by learning his or her name and where he or she comes from. Ask the delegate about his or her ideas and impressions of the debate. Showing interest in your fellow delegates at the beginning of the conference will help you gain more support later on and can help you to form lasting friendships.

- See more at: http://unausa.org/global-classrooms-model-un/how-to-participate/model-un-preparation/caucusing#sthash.HN46gdA1.dpuf

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      • Public Speaking
      • Caucusing
      • Rules of Procedure
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        • Preambulatory and Operative Clauses
        • Sponsors and Signatories
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        • Sample Resolution
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Resolutions

 

Model UN Preparation The final results of discussion, writing and negotiation are resolutions—written suggestions for addressing a specific problem or issue. Resolutions, which are drafted by delegates and voted on by the committee, normally require a simple majority to pass (except in the Security Council). Only Security Council resolutions can compel nations to take action. All other UN bodies use resolutions to make recommendations or suggestions for future action. Draft Resolutions Draft resolutions are all resolutions that have not yet been voted on. Delegates write draft resolutions alone or with other countries. There are three main parts to a draft resolution: the heading, the preamble and the operative section. The heading shows the committee and topic along with the resolution number. It also lists the draft resolution's sponsors and signatories (see below). Each draft resolution is one long sentence with sections separated by commas and semicolons. The subject of the sentence is the body making the statement (e.g., the General Assembly, Economic and Social Council, or Security Council). The preamble and operative sections then describe the current situation and actions that the committee will take. Bringing a Resolution to the Floor for Debate A draft resolution must always gain the support of a certain number of member states in the committee before the sponsors (the delegates who created the resolution) may submit it to the committee staff. Many conferences require signatures from 20 percent of the countries present in order to submit a draft resolution. A staff member will read the draft resolution to ensure that it is relevant and in proper format. Only when a staff member formally accepts the document and assigns it a number can it be referred to in formal debate. In some cases a delegate must make a motion to introduce the draft resolution, while in other cases the sponsors are immediately called upon to read the document. Because these procedures can vary, it is essential to find out about the resolution process for the conference you plan to attend. Tips for Resolution Writing
  • Be sure to follow the format for resolutions provided by the conference organizers. Each conference may have a slightly different format.
  • Create a detailed resolution. For example, if your resolution calls for a new program, think about how it will be funded and what body will manage it.
  • Try to cite facts whenever possible.
  • Be realistic. Do not create objectives for your resolution that cannot be met. Make sure your body can take the action suggested. For example, the General Assembly can't sanction another country – only the Security Council can do so.
  • Try to find multiple sponsors. Your committee will be more likely to approve the resolutions if many delegates contribute ideas.
  • Preambulatory clauses are historic justifications for action. Use them to cite past resolutions, precedents and statements about the purpose of action.
  • Operative clauses are policies that the resolution is designed to create. Use them to explain what the committee will do to address the issue.
Resolutions Overview
  • Preambulatory and Operative Clauses
  • Sponsors and Signatories
  • Friendly and Unfriendly Amendments
  • Sample Resolution

- See more at: http://unausa.org/global-classrooms-model-un/how-to-participate/model-un-preparation/resolutions#sthash.cZaUkIbj.dpuf

Dressing for Success

 

Model UN Preparation Dressing professionally and appropriately is an important aspect of Model UN preparations. Just like being polite and having proper manners, dressing appropriately is an important way to show respect for the nation you are representing, for your fellow delegates and for the United Nations. At some conferences, delegates may wear their own national dress; however, most conferences will require western business attire. What is Western Business Attire? Western business attire, or international standard business attire, serves as customary dress for workplaces. It entails wearing a suit, which is made up of trousers, a matching jacket, a button-down dress shirt, and a tie. Conservative dress shoes and socks are also important. Skirts and dresses may also be worn as long as they fall to a decent length. The main thing to remember is to always insure that your appearance is tidy and put-together, and that you are well-covered.

 


Date: 2016-01-14; view: 684


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