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Characteristics of Personality Categories


· Objective-focused

· Know what they want and how to get there!

· Communicates quickly, gets to the point

· Sometimes tactless and brusque

· Can be an "ends justify the means" type of person

· Hardworking, high energy

· Does not shy away from conflict



· Natural salesmen or story-tellers

· Warm and enthusiastic

· Good motivators, communicators

· Can be competitive

· Can tend to exaggerate, leave out facts and details

· Sometimes would rather talk about things than do them!



· Kind-hearted people who avoid conflict

· Can blend into any situation well

· Can appear wishy-washy

· Has difficulty with firm decisions

· Often loves art, music and poetry

· Highly sensitive

· Can be quiet and soft-spoken



· Highly detail oriented people

· Can have a difficult time making decisions without all the facts

· Make great accounts and engineers

· Tend to be highly critical people

· Can tend to be pessimistic in nature

· Very perceptive


No one personality type outshines the other or is preferable to the other - but all complement each other in different ways. If you are choosing a team for a difficult task, it is a good idea to have representation for each on your team for a balanced approach to the task at hand.


The expert negotiator does not focus on their goals, but the audience's goals. The art of negotiating is making the audience believe that they are coming out on top of the agreement, without the negotiator begging or selling. Goals are often motivated by people's desire for relationships, building wealth, improving security, and achieving a socially 'higher' goal. A negotiator will use these goals to 'speak' to the audience and help them reach their goals by reaching their own goals.


Negotiating is not a forceful encounter. Act collaboratively, not competitively. It is not "me against you." The other person is a bargaining partner. Everyone must come away with a benefit, or the party who has nothing to lose will leave. It is a big mistake to think you can use negotiations to get something for nothing. When negotiating, present your case as if both parties are on equal ground. Everyone can succeed at negotiating if they make "Mutual Benefit" their mantra.


Reading comprehension

Exercise 1

Define the statements as True or False.

1. Negotiation is the art of manipulating another person.

2. A good negotiator strives for a win-win situation.

3. Assertive communication always involves manipulation.

4. Passive negotiators don’t talk much, question even less and actually do very little.

5. Passive-aggressive negotiators use confrontation and avoid manipulation.

6. Assertive communication is the most effective.

7. No one personality type is preferable to the other.

8. The expert negotiator focuses on their goals.

9. Both parties must leave negotiations with a benefit.


Exercise 2

Complete the sentences from the text.

1. There are three elements in negotiation to be considered if …

2. Negotiation is a type of collaboration, even if you need…

3. When we are being assertive, we work …

4. Passives have learned that …

5. If you are choosing a team for a difficult task, it is a good idea …

6. The art of negotiating is making the audience believe …

7. When negotiating, present your case as …


Exercise 3


Place the statements under the correct personality type.

a. Wants all the facts to make a decision.

b. Dominates and threatens people.

c. Wants everyone to be happy.

d. Wants to win, even if it means that someone has to lose.

e. Accepts losses and gives in too easily.

f. Loses perspective, ignores others.

g. Wants to win but based on principles and facts.

h. Less sensitive to what is happening around them.

i. Bound and determined not to lose

j. Wants everybody to be happy

k. Wants to get excited about the issues

l. Doesn’t waste time on small talk


Driver Expressive Amiable Analytical

Exercise 4

Whose common expressions are these?

Guess which of 4 personality type uses these sentences.

1. ……………


"We have to think about the impact on the people." "I don't want to offend or upset people." "What about loyalty?"


2. ……………

"I need all the information you can get." "I need to think about this.""I don't want to jump into this, let's prepare an in-depth report."


3. ……………

"This isn't a religion, it's a business." "How will this affect our claim and the results?


4. ……………

"This is great news." "Fantastic!" "We can really do things with this."

Have a look at these situations and decide how...

...a passive person would react
...an aggressive person would react
...a passive-aggressive person would react
...an assertive person would react

1. You are trying to concentrate on some important work. However, a few of your co-workers are laughing and horsing around. What do you do?   2. You are a secretary in a small company. One day, your boss asks you to get some cigarettes for him from the store across the street. What do you do?   3. You are the head of your department. A young lady who works for you has started coming to work late everyday and is extremely moody. What do you do?   4. Your boss has borrowed your laptop to do some work. He has had it for several hours and it is now time to go home. You really want to take it home to do some personal work. What do you do?   5. Your boss walks up behind you when you are using the company phone for a personal call. "How much longer do you plan to be?" he asks. What do you do?  


1. In this interview, you will hear Siobhan Quinn, Sales Manager at Texaco, talking about negotiating. Listen and check whether the following statements accurately reflect what she says.

1. Siobhan Quinn’s full title is Manager, Bulk Sales, Texaco Fuel and Marine Marketing Department.

2. Negotiators are born not made.

3. It is important for both parties to achieve something in a negotiation.

4. Some 40% of Texaco’s business is with non-native speakers of English.

5. Language affects negotiating strategy more than cultural considerations.

6. Personality influences negotiating strategy.

7. PLAS is a financial magazine.

8. Negotiating is a bit like dancing and boxing.


2. Listen again and make notes under the following headings and subheadings.

§ personality

- Buyer 1, and how to deal with him

- Buyer 2, and how to deal with him

§ feedback

- how negotiating works

- negotiating without feedback

§ advice

- knowledge

- skill



Translate into Ukrainian.


For many reasons, the only healthy communication style is assertive communication. Surely you can identify many people in your own life that favor each of the four styles. Most of us use a combination of these four styles, depending on the person or situation. The styles we choose generally depend on what will work best to get our needs met in each specific situation. If you take a really good look at yourself, you've probably used each throughout your lifetime.

Understanding the four basic types of communication will help you learn how to react most effectively when confronted with a difficult person. It will also help you get your own needs met. Remember, you always have a choice as to which communication style you use. If you're serious about taking control of your life, practice being more assertive. It will help you diffuse anger, reduce guilt and build relationships - both personally and professionally.




Exercise 1

Match the terms with their definitions.

1) proposal 2) facilitator 3) confidentiality 4) concession 5) compromise 6) commitment 7) alternatives 8) tentative solution 9) party 10) package 11) issue 12) impasse 13) good faith   a) a) either side in a negotiation. b) b) an agreement that depends on some condition. c) a combination of options that has been offers as a solution. d) an obligation to do something e) accepting less in order to get something . f) being honest about your intentions. g) an agreement that prevents either side from talking about it in public. h) a topic that needs to be discussed in a negotiation. i) any other choices a person or group has. j) when two sides hold different positions that they are unwilling to change. k) a person who tries to make it easier for two people to make an agreement. l) any suggestion or idea given from one party to another. m) an agreement where you get less than you want but also give less than the other person wants.  


Exercise 2

Complete the sentences with the words from Exercise 1.

1. At last we’ve reached a____________.

2. We’ll look at your ____________during the coming week and give you our response the following Monday.

3. If we use a___________, he may help to move the negotiations forward.

4. Money is the biggest ____________in this negotiation.

5. We were close to an agreement but we suddenly hit an __________over payment terms.

6. We've made a ___________on this point. If we don't do it, the agreement will fall apart.

7. If we don’t_____________, this deal will never get done.

8. OK, you’ve made a ____________ on price, so we can make a ____________on the delivery date.

9. I’m sorry but our ______________agreement prevents me from answering your questions in details.

10. If we negotiate in______________, we are sure to reach an agreement eventually.



Exercise 3

1. It took over five hours of negotiating for the parties to come to a ………. .

a) hostility b) bottom-line c) consensus d) indecisive

2. It was ……… decision to settle our differences out of court.

a) flexible b) mutual c) unrealistic d) victorious

3. One ………that always works is to ask your counterpart to speak first.

a) tactic b) bargain c) resistance d) tension

4. We would have more ………..if we had some more recent statistics to use.

a) haggling b) concession c) impulse d) leverage

5. There was ……….to our proposal until we made our last demand.

a) hostility b) receptive c) resistance d) tension

6. We were ………over prices all afternoon.

a) misleading b) conflict c) dispute d) haggling

7. I wasn’t expecting our opponents to ……….so quickly.

a) amplify b) yield c) counterproposal d) arbitration

8. When I ……….the client about their promise they agreed to honour it.

a) log-rolled b) entitled c) confronted d) dominated

9. If that is your only ……….I would be happy to concede.

a) pressure b) objective c) victory d) cooperation

10. Within ten minutes the negotiations had already ended in a ……….. .

a) deadlock b) counterpart c) collective d) bottom-line

Exercise 4

Put the words from the box to complete the text.


Date: 2016-01-14; view: 819

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