Britain is a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch. Queen Elizabeth II is the head of state, but she has no real power. In law the queen is the head of the executive branch and a part of the legislative branch but in fact her role is mostly ceremonial. She acts on the advice of her ministers.
In Britain it is Parliament that has the power. Parliament makes laws. It is made up of the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The members of the House of Lords are permanent - mostly lords and people who have been made lords for life. The Lords can revise and even delay bills. They have real influence in politics. The Commons have much more real power. The members of the Commons are elected by the people. They control the executive branch and discuss most important political problems.
The largest party in the Commons forms the government and its leader becomes Prime Minister. The people do not elect the Prime Minister directly. Officially Parliament appoints Prime Minister. The Prime Minister chooses the Cabinet and non-cabinet ministers. They are all collectively responsible for the government, the executive branch, and individually responsible for their departments.
How Much Power Does the US President Have?
The United States of America is a presidential republic. So, the President is the head of state there. But the President is elected directly by the people and he is not a member of the American Parliament, Congress.
Congress, the legislative branch of the federal government, is made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives.
There are 100 senators, two for each state. The House has 435 members, the number of Representatives from each state depends on its population. Congress makes all laws and each house of Congress can introduce a new project. Each can vote against the project passed by the other. If both houses agree and the President signs it, the project becomes law.
The President and his Administration represent the executive branch of the federal government. The Administration includes the Secretaries, who are heads of the executive departments. Each department is responsible for a specific area. The President appoints the Secretaries but the Senate must approve his appointments.
The legislative and the executive branches of government are involved in the system of checks and balances.
What Political System Does Russia Belong To?
The Russian Federation (Russia) is a presidential republic. The President is the head of state and is elected directly by the people. In fact he has much power. The President can even dissolve the Duma if it doesn't agree with his suggestions three times running. The President has his Administration but it is not part of the Federal Government. The President is involved in the work of the legislative and executive branches.
The Federal Assembly represents the legislative branch of power. It is made up of two houses: the Federation Council and the Duma which make laws. The President can veto laws passed by the Federal Assembly but the Federal Assembly can pass over the President's veto by a two-thirds majority.
The Federal Government represents the executive branch of power. The President appoints its head, the Chairman of the Government, but the Duma must approve his appointment.
The Supreme Court represents the judicial branch of power.
The Constitutional Court has the right to declare actions of the President, the Federal Assembly and the Federal Government unconstitutional.