Place of Methods of foreign language teaching in the theory of Education. General methods and special methods.
General characteristics of ways of research used in methods of foreign language teaching.
Main methodological categories.
Relation of Methods with other sciences.
Methods of F.L. Teachingis a pedagogical science which studies the regularities of teaching pupils a foreign language in accordance with the data of basic and contiguous sciences with the regardfor the peculiarities of aims and conditions of teaching.
Methods as a pedagogical science comprises the study of:
Aims of teaching a FL;
Content of teaching;
Methods and techniques of teaching
Means of teaching
Ways of learning and education.
General Methodsstudies such basic problems as:
- the principles of the selection of the material;
- characteristics of stages of foreign language teaching;
- ways of organization and intensification of teaching procedurals;
- problems of usage of visual aids and technical aids of teaching;
- the problem of exercises;
- the problem of organization and conducting extracurricular work.
Special Methods deal with methods techniques and forms of teaching a particular foreign language (phonetics, word order, the usage of tense forms, etc.).
General Characteristics of Ways of Research used in Methods of FLT
Basic ways of research include :
A critical study of the ways foreign languages were taught in this particular country and abroad;
A thorough study and summing up of the experience of the best FL teachers in different types of schools;
Observation of what is going on in the classroom;
5) experimental method with the aim of confirming or refuting the working hypotheses that may arise during the investigation;
Additional ways of research are:
Talks with teachers and pupils (with the purpose of finding out something);
Time-keeping; as a method of research it is aimed at fixing documentarily the teaching procedure;
Oscellographic analysis, which is used as an additional aid while studying melody, rhythm of speech. Tape recording is widely used in the experimental work.
Experiment is used for testing some hypothesis.
The main feature of experiment is the ability of reconstructing, reproducing and changing a phenomenon with the aim of its deep and all-sided research. This feature accounts for economy, resultiveness and validity of experiment.
The main type of experiment is teaching experiment.
Types of Experiment
repeated or additional
laboratory exp. which is usually conducted with a group of pupils;
3. the method of conducting
The basic experimentis aimed at receiving the necessary data to confirm or to refuse the working hypothesis, its practical and scientific value.
The experiment requires the following procedure:
Step1:Preparation of experimental material;
Step 2: pre-test in all the groups, both control and those taken for experimental;
Step 3: experimental class sessions;
Step 4: post-test;
Step 5: the interpretation of experimental results.
The characteristic features of a natural experiment:
1) it is adequate to the adopted academic plan, to the aims, tasks and working conditions of F.L.T at a particular type of educational institutions.
2)Obligatory observance of natural conditions of teaching procedure including the number of pupils in a group, the material taught, the number of lessons;
3Mass character. It can be reduced only to a certain class or school
Mass experimental teaching is the final stage of methodological research. It it provides: 1) the opinions of a teacher;
2) the results of questionnaires;
3) the statistic data, as well as it uses a method of mathematical treatment at pre-test and post-test data.