PRODUCTS AND OBJECTS OF EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
Actuality. Sanitary microbiology is a science based on the detection of risks associated with the production, manufacture and consumption of foods, air and water. It has been established that environment facts determine the survival, growing and inactivation of the microorganisms. These risks are commonly associated with the presence of microbiological hazards and represent a serious problem from the Public Health viewpoint. The types of microorganisms’s presents in products will depend of the way they have been elaborated, transportated, stored, taking or prepared before eating.
The study of the sanitary-bacteriological of objects of external environment is needed for warning of development of infections, understanding of origin of infection. All of it is very topically lately. So for example, the absence of coliforms in a water sample does not give absolute assurance of the absence of pathogenic organisms, but it is a good indication. Certain other types of microbial pathogens such as viruses (hepatitis A, poliomyelitis, Norovirus) and protozoa (Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba) can be present in the absence of bacterial indicators. Experience has shown that disinfection of water supplies to achieve zero coliform counts has generally been successful at preventing water-borne disease. Therefore every specialist must know the basic ways of transmission of pathogens, to know the basic bacteriological indicators of contamination of objects of external environment, able to estimate results them sanitary-bacteriological examination.
Primary objective: to be able to conduct and evaluate the sanitary-bacteriological research of water, soil, air, food products.
QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
1. Role, value and tasks of sanitary microbiology.
2. Sanitary-indicators microorganisms.
3. Microflora of water and methods of its bacteriological examination (fermenting method, method of membrane filters). Sanitary-indicators microorganisms of water. Methods of the pathogenic microorganisms’ indication.
4. Microflora of the soil and methods of bacteriological examination. Sanitary-indicators microorganisms of the soil. Principles the determination of microbial number, coli-titer, perfringens-titer and titer of termophylic bacteria of soil. Methods of the pathogenic microorganisms’ indication.
5. Microflora of air and methods of bacteriological examination: sidementation and aspiration methods. Sanitary-indicators microorganisms of air. Methods of the pathogenic microorganisms’ indication.
6. General principles of sanitary-microbiological research of food products.
7. Bacterial flora of milk and dairy products. Methods of sanitary-microbiological research of the milk and dairy products. Change of microflora of milk at storage: bactericidal phase; phase of the mixed microflora; phase of lactobacilluss; phase of development of yeasts and moulds.
Date: 2016-01-14; view: 839