The war was started by Polish King August the Second.At the same time the army of Danish King Frederick the Fourth started the invasion to the south territory of Sweden, but, suddenly, the Swedish army, under the leadership of 18 years old King of Sweden Carl the Twelfth came to the “walls” Copenhagen. Of course, Danish King had to conclude the treaty of peace, according to this he couldn’t take part in the war. So, Carl the twelfth showed himself as very talented leadership.
For Russia the war started in the 9 August of 1700 from the siege of Narva fortress. The garrison of Narva numbered with no more, then 500 men, who fought (combated) against the army of Peter, which included 40 000 solders. But, Russian artillery consisted from very old weapons, the bombs for hoax were closed (finished) very soon and the bombs were changed with the stones, after the stones the hoaxes were destroyed very soon. Of course, Peter couldn’t continue the battle and had to retract. After this incident Peter and his army once faced with the army of Carl the Twelfth on Russian lands and he suffered a heavy defeat.
There are two reasons of the defeat: firs of all Russian army and Peter had never faced with regular European army. They didn’t have any military experience. And secondly, the weapons of soldiers were very old.
After the Carl’s victory under the Russian army, he decided to go to Poland, there were a lot of people, who were dissatisfited with the reign of Polish King August the Second, but Carl the Twelfth had the glory of Swedish Alexander the Great. And in result of seize of Poland, Carl the Twelfth dethroned August the Second and made one of his warboss Stanislav Leshinsky a new Polish King. So, the puppet state appeared near the Russian’s borders. Russia lost one more associate (confederate).
After this event, Peter made the decision to prepare the army and weapons to continue the war against Swedes. He ordered to take into the army every fiftieth young man, the family of volunteers freed from serfdom, a lot of church’s bells were re-smelt into hoaxes.
In 1702 in Archangelsk the creating of Russian navy fleet was began. After the Peter’s order there were 2 light frigates were heavy off.
To 1702 Peter with a part of his army arrived by water to Noteburg fortress, where he was added with another part of army. The fortress is located in the island and controlling the Neva River. It is the main strategic idea. After a few hours the fortress was seized and renamed into Shliselburg, what means “the key- city”, because Peter obtained the key to the Baltic Sea.
After a few days the next fortress Niencshance was taken. Meanwhile, Carl the Twelfth even forgot about Russia and spent this time in Poland.
So, the territory along the river shore belonged to Peter and he needed to fortify the delta of Neva river and he ordered to begin of building of Saint-Petersburg, which started with Peter and Paul Fortress in 27 May of 1703.
1704-5the fortress Kronestandt was built on the Kotlin island.
1704the fortress Narva was seized for 45 minutes.
1708 “The battle of Lesnaya”. Menshikov VS Levengaupt. It was the first large victory of Russian infantry. Peter said: The battle under the village Lesnaya is a Mother of Poltava’s victory”.
1709 “The Battle of Poltava”
In October of 1708 Cossack Hetman Ivan Mazepa.He was very intelligent person for his time, got an education in many European countries, knew many foreign languages, including Italian, French, Polish, Douche, Tatar. In 1687 Tzarevna Sophia ordered him to lead Ukraine, it means to be a hetman. Mazepa earned the credit of Peter and for 20 years served faithfully to Russia. He was very talented (gifted) politician. But in the winter of 1709 he decided to gather up 3000 of Don Cossacks and arrived to the army of Carl the Twelfth, who located at this time in the capital- in the city Baturin. It was the treason Peter. Peter ordered to the troop under the leading of Menshikov to seize the city. It had done. So, of course, the treason of Mazepa was not the dramatic impact to the Peter’s army, but Carl the Twelfth needed in provision to and winter quarters his army, so he get it.
In the 8th July the major battle was given in Poltava.The innovative idea of Peter was included in creating, so-called redoubts -the fortification constriction, made of earth and wood, which blocked the enemy. So, Peter just prepared to the battle very good.
The army of Peter was counting about 37 000 solders.
The army of Carl was counting only 17 000 solders.
After a few hours Swedish army had to escape, it was demoralizated and persecuted by Menshikov’s troop and he accepted the capitulation of Swedish army, so he finished the battle of Poltava.
For Russia the Poltava’s victory was obtained hardly shedding any blood.
In the 9th October of 1709, after the victory in Poltava, Peter succeeded to close again the “Northern alliance”, included Saxon and Denmark. To complete the war against sea power Swedish state, Peter needed his own navy fleet, that’s why he held the friendship with Denmark and England- the main sea power European countries at that time. All those 10 years Peter created the Russian fleet and by the 1710 he had a lot of sea ports and building docks.
After the battle of Poltava, Carl the Twelfth was hurt, crossed the Dnepr river and went to the Turkish territory, where he lived in the city of Bendery as a guest of Ottoman Empire.
Meanwhile, the war between Russia and Turkey flushed again, and finished with defeated of Peter, who had to leave the southern Russian fortress near Sea of Azov.
Navy Fleet under Peter.
For the first time, the fleet of Peter consisted of numerous galleys. It were the small boats, made of Russian pine. On the ship’s board could be about 300 solders. It could move at a speed of 10 kilometers per hour. And more important detail is that, the galleys could floating near the shores, where the level of water very low. So, for the short term the galley’s fleet was finished. By the April pf 1713 to the shores of Gulf of Finland arrived 100 galleys, on the boards of which were about 16 000 solders, but it was some kind of expedition, the major events should happened only in the next year.
The battle of Gangute.
By the May of 1714 the renew galley’s fleet had been floating to the Swedish shores. The leaders were Peter himself and general Feodor Apraxin.
Near the half- island Gangute Peter’s fleet faced with 15 destroyer leaders (ôðåãàò), every of it had 16 hoaxes. But Peter ordered to float near the shores, avoiding the Swedish destroyer leaders, because at this morning was the calm sea. The huge Swedish ships couldn’t move without window and they started to shouting helpless into the galleys with bombs, but Peter’s fleet had gone to skerryes (the narrow channel). Later, the destroyer leader “Elephant” and 6 galleys were attacked and seized by Russians. That was the first victory of Russian navy fleet.
Meanwhile, in 1718 Carl the Twelfth was killed in the battle against Norwegians. Peter declared the penitential for Carl for week in Russia.
1720 the battle near the island Grenham the major navy battle, after it the peace talks were started.
The results of the war.
In the 30th August of 1721the treaty of Nystad was made. Russia get The Baltic states and Karelia and Sweden kept Finland.