Hippocrates (460?-377?bc), greatest physician of antiquity, regarded as the father of medicine. Born probably on the island of Kos, Greece, Hippocrates traveled widely before settling on Kos to practice and teach medicine. He died in Larissa, Greece; little else is known about him. His name is associated with the Hippocratic Oath, though he probably is not the author of the document. In fact, of the approximately 70 works ascribed to him in the Hippocratic Collection, Hippocrates may actually have written about six of them. The Hippocratic Collection probably is the remnant of the medical library of the famous Kos school of medicine. His teachings, sense of detachment, and ability to make direct, clinical observations probably influenced the other authors of these works and had much to do with freeing ancient medicine from superstition.
Among the more significant works of the Hippocratic Collection is Airs, Waters, and Places (5th century BC), which, instead of ascribing diseases to divine origin, discusses their environmental causes. It proposes that considerations such as a town's weather, drinking water, and site along the paths of favorable winds can help a physician ascertain the general health of citizens. Three other worksóPrognostic, Coan Prognosis, and Aphorismsóadvanced the then-revolutionary idea that, by observing enough cases, a physician can predict the course of a disease.
The idea of preventive medicine, first conceived in Regimen and Regimen in Acute Diseases, stresses not only diet but also the patient's general way of living and how it influences his or her health and convalescence. Sacred Disease, a treatise on epilepsy, reveals the rudimentary knowledge of anatomy in ancient Greece. Epilepsy was believed to be caused by insufficient air, which was thought to be carried by the veins to the brain and limbs. In Joints, the use of the so-called Hippocratic bench is described for treating dislocations. Also of interest are Wounds in the Head, Women's Diseases, and Dismembering of the Feotus in the Womb.
Exercise 1. Answer the questions:
1. What is Hippocratesí contribution to medical science?
2. What is the origin of diseases according to Hippocrates?
3. What was considered to be Sacred Disease?
4. What other ancient medical practitioners do you know?
Exercise 2. Find the Hippocratic Oath text. Is the Oath still taken by the doctors-to-be? What strikes you most about it?
III. SEEING A DOCTOR
Exercise 1.Put each of the following words in its correct place in the passage below.
thermometer ward prescription operation
stethoscope pulse receptionist appointment
symptoms chemist examine treatment
waiting room temperature
At the Doctor
When I go to the doctor, I tell the ___________ my name and take a seat in the _______________. My doctor is very busy so I have to make an ________________ before I go to see him. He asks me what's wrong with me, I tell him the ______________ of my illness, for example high temperature, difficulty in breathing, or pains, and then he will usually ____________ me. He'll listen to my heart with his ______________, he'll hold my wrist to feel my ____________, he'll take my ____________ with his _____________. The problem is usually something simple and he might give me a ______________ for some medicine, which I take to the ______________. Of course, if I needed more serious treatment, I'd have to go to hospital. There I'd be put in a bed in a ______________ with 10 or 20 other people. If there were something seriously wrong with me, I might need an ________________.
Exercise 2.Which of the specialists would you consult in each of the following cases?
1) To operate on an eye cataract _ c _ _ _ _ _;
2) to cure your son's measles _ _ _ d _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _;
3) to deliver a baby _ _ _ t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _;
4) to test your eyesight _ _ t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _;
5) to cure a rash on the skin c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _;
6) to treat a sick mind p _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _;
7) to operate on your appendix _ _ r _ _ _ _;
8) to treat Peter's deformed hip _ _ _ _ _ p _ _ _ _ _;
9) to analyze your dreams _ s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _;
10) to treat the ailments of a woman _ _ n _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.
Exercise 3.Read the texts.
Mary Healy fell off her bicycle. Sheís in the emergency room at the local hospital. Dr. Singh is examining her.
Doctor: Well, hello, young lady. It looks like youíve had quite a fall. What were you doing? Going too fast?
Mary: Yes, doctor. I fell off going around a corner.
Doctor: I see. Well, let me take a look at you. Hm. Thatís a bad cut. Iíll have to put a couple of stitches in that.
Mary: I have a cut here too, doctor.
Doctor: It looks worse than it is. Only the skin is broken. The nurse will clean it up for you. Itíll sting, but thatís all. Now does it hurt anywhere else?
Mary: I have a pain in my arm. Itís very sore, and it feels stiff.
Doctor: Well, thereís nothing broken, but youíve bruised your shoulder. Itíll be sore for a few days. Did you bump your head?
Mary: Yes, I did. I fell on the bike. But it doesnít hurt now.
Doctor: Did you feel dizzy?
Mary: No, not at all.
Doctor: Look up there. Iím going to shine this light in your eye. Uh huh. All right. Thatís fine. Iíll sew this cut up, and the nurse will put a bandage on it. Then you can go home.
* * *
Jean Weiner has gone to see Dr. Carlos Valencia, her family doctor.
Jean: Good morning, doctor.
Doctor: Oh, good morning, Mrs. Weiner. What seems to be the problem today?
Jean: Itís those pills, doctor. They donít seem to be doing me any good.
Doctor: Really? Whatís wrong?
Jean: What isnít wrong with me, doctor! Itís old age, I suppose.
Doctor: Youíre doing very well, Mrs. Weiner! Youíll live to be a hundred!
Jean: I have this terrible cough, doctor, and I still have that rash on my hands. And the backache! I can hardly walk sometimes. You donít think itís cancer, do you? Iíve been reading so much about it in the paper.
Doctor: No, no. No chance of that. You are in a good shape for your age.
Jean: You canít be serious. Anyway, Iím almost finished with the old pills, doctor. Can you give me a different colour next time?
Exercise 3.1.Mark each true statement T and each false statement F:
1. When Mary fell of her bicycle she hurt her knee badly. Her knee looked red and swollen.
2. Mary decided against consulting a doctor. She took some cloth, dropped it to the cold water, and put it on the bruise. She thought it would relieve the pain.
3. Mary made up her mind to consult the doctor. She went to the local hospital and asked Dr. Singh to examine her.
4. Dr. Singh said it was a bad cut. He had to put a couple of stitches in the injured knee.
5. Dr. Singh examined Mary and came to the conclusion that it was a fracture. It was impossible to see an open fracture without X-rays and the doctor used X-ray to see the break.
6. The doctor put plaster cast on the broken limbs.
7. Mary had a pain in her arm. It felt stiff. In addition, she bruised her shoulder.
8. The doctor promised he would sew that cut up and asked the nurse to put a bandage on it.
9. The doctor says Mrs. Weiner is in poor health. She has aches and pains of every description.
10. The doctor supposes Mrs. Weiner has pneumonia or consumption. He asks Jean to pass a blood test. He is sure she must have her chest X-rayed.
11. Mrs. Weiner has a hacking cough. Besides, she has a rash on her hands. Sometimes itís difficult for Jean to walk because she has a backache.
12. The doctor considers Mrs. Weiner to be in good shape for her age.
Exercise 3.2.Explain the following words and phrases as they have been used in the texts. Translate them into Ukrainian:
Emergency room; local hospital; it looks like; to take a look at smb (smth); a bad cut; to put a couple of stitches; it looks worse than it is; to have a pain in oneís arm; to feel stiff; to bruise oneís shoulder; to bump oneís head; to feel dizzy; to sew the cut up; to put a bandage on; to have a rash on oneís hands; to be in good shape for oneís age.
Exercise 4.Compose a short story about a person who had an accident and was taken to the first-aid room using the expressions:
To give the first aid; to give the help to an injured person; to be calm and act without panic; the first-aid room; to make a quick examination; to load a syringe; to ease (relieve) a pain; to fell and bruise oneís leg (arm) badly; a break in a bone (fractured bone); closed (open) fractures; to lay a patient down on a stretcher cart; a plaster cast; to put a limb (an arm) in a splint; set of splints; to complain of a pain in the place of the break (fracture, sprain); to use X-rays to see the break; to suffer from a pain; to have so much pain that one canít take a deep breath; to paint the cuts with iodine; to put on (take off) a bandage; to put (take off) stitches; a sling for an arm in a plaster cast; to remove the cast; to put (change, remove, apply) a dressing on smbís wound (an arm, a hand, leg, head), etc.; a successful outcome.
Exercise 5.Insert articles where necessary. Explain the use (or absence) of articles:
___(1) ambulance doctor must have ____ (2) deep knowledge of ____(3) emergency surgery, toxicology, therapy, obstetrics and gynaecology. He must always do his best to give ___ (4) patient ___(5) proper aid.
While working at ___(6) First Aid Station he/she may have ___(7) serious casesÖ
___(8) call was made to ___(9) First Aid Station. It appeared that ___ (10) man had met with ___ (11) accident. When ___(12) doctor reached ___ (13) place of ___ (14) accident he examined ___(15) victim. ___ (16) man was badly injured. He had ___(17) open bleeding wound in his leg, his arm was fractured, and there were many injuries, abrasions and bruises on his face and shoulders. ___(18) man lost his consciousness and was moaning all the time.
___(19) doctor tried to arrest profuse arterial bleeding; he elevated ___(20) injured limb carefully and applied ___(21) tourniquet to it. Next he applied ___(22) sterile gauze dressing on ___(23) manís face and forehead to prevent contamination. Then ___ (24) doctor examined ___(25) arm and applied ___(26) splint to it. ___ (27) injection of ___(28) seductive (a pain killer) having been given, ___ (29) man recovered his consciousness.
It was necessary to transport ___ (30) patient to ___ (31) nearest hospital without ___(32) delay as he was in ___ (33) very poor condition. ___ (34 stretcher-bearers laid ___ (35) patient down on ___ (36 stretcher carefully and in ___ (37) quarter of ___ (38) our ___ (39) patient was brought to ___ (40) hospital. If ___ (41) ambulance doctor hadnít given ___(42) patient ___ (43) emergency help, ___ (44) patient would have died.
At ___ (1) half past 10 a.m. ___ (2) ambulance brought to ___ (3) hospital ___ (4) girl of 14. ___ (5) girl complained of ___ (6) pain in ___ (7) right lower part of her stomach. ___ (8) doctor asked ___ (9) girl to lie down on ___ (10) couch and began his examination by palpating ___ (11) patientís abdomen. He made ___ (12) diagnosis of ___ (13) acute appendicitis.
___ (14) acute appendicitis is very dangerous to ___ (15) life and its onset is often sudden. In some cases of ___ (16) acute appendicitis ___ (17) gangrenous and perforating forms complicated by ___ (18) peritonitis may be observed.
For this reason, ___ (19) surgeon directed ___ (20) girl to ___ (21) in-patient department for being operated on at once. It was necessary to remove ___ (22) appendix immediately in order to prevent its rupture which might cause ___ (23) peritonitis with ___ (24) fatal outcome.
___ (25) same day ___ (26) girl had been operated on for ___ (27) acute appendicitis. The next day she was wheeled on ___ (28) stretcher cart to ___ (29) dressing room. Having helped to lay ___ (30) patient down on ___ (31) dressing-table ___ (32 )surgeon began to dress her wound. Then ___ (33) surgeon examined ___ (34) wound and carefully took out ___ (35) gauze drain soaked with ___ (36) pus. After washing ___ (37) edges of ___ (38) operating wound ___ (39) surgeon put ___ (40) new outer bandage on ___ (41) wound. ___ (42) girlís post-operative condition was good and ___ (43) wound was healing well. She was out of danger and very soon was up and about.
Exercise 6.Put the sentences in proper order to tell a story. Retell the story to your groupmates:
1. A cat was crossing the road.
2. The surgeon entered the room.
3. Someone called for an ambulance.
4. The man was killed and his son was seriously injured.
5. They had a very good party.
6. The man swerved to avoid the cat.
7. They were driving back together.
8. It was raining and the road was wet.
9. A man and his son had been to a party.
10. The car skidded on the wet road and crashed into a tree.
11. The surgeon saw the boy and shouted: ĎMy son! My son!í
12. He was taken directly to an operating room.
13. An ambulance came and rushed the son to the hospital.
14. Can you explain?
Exercise 7. Read the text.
Mr. Priestley: Now, Olaf, I think we will send you to the doctorís. I am sure no one here has less need of a doctor than you have, so this conversation will need some imagination. Pedro, you had better be the doctor. Olaf has just entered your consulting-room. Doctor: Good evening, Mr. Peterson. Whatís the trouble? You certainly donít look as if there is anything wrong with you.
Olaf: I havenít been feeling very well for some time. I have lost my appetite and donít sleep very well. I have rather a bad cough that I canít get rid of, and a pain in my chest, sometimes, when I breathe.
Doctor: I see. Very well. You had better have a thorough examination. Let me see your tongueÖ Yes, your stomach is a little out of orderÖ Now your pulseÖ Yes, thatís all right. Now just unfasten your coat and waistcoat and shirt and Iíll listen to your heart and chest. Say ĎNinety nineí.
Olaf: Ninety nine.
Olaf: Ninety nine, ninety nine.
Doctor: Do you smoke a lot?
Olaf: Well, rather a lot, Iím afraid; twenty or thirty cigarettes a day.
Doctor: Hm! You ought to cut that down for a time. Let me see your throat. Open your mouth. Say ĎAhí.
Olaf: Ah! Ah!
Olaf: Ah! Ah!
Doctor: All right, that will do. You can put your coat on again now. What do you weigh?
Olaf: Twelve stone, two.
Doctor: Have you been losing weight at all?
Olaf: No, I donít lose or gain, at least never more than a pound or so one way or another.
Doctor: Well, thereís nothing serious the matter with you, but you are rather run down. You have been working too hard. You know you canít burn the candle at both ends, and you need a real rest. Iíll give you a bottle of medicine that will help. Take a tablespoonful in water three times a day after meals. Eat plenty of good plain food, have no cigarettes and drink plenty of milk, at least a pint a day, and not much coffee; get plenty of fresh air and plenty of sleep, but, above all, donít try to do too much. A real change of air and surroundings will be very helpful if you could manage it.
Olaf: As a matter of fact, I have been invited to go and stay with some friends in their cottage in Cornwall.
Doctor: Thatís just the thing. But remember, take it easy. Not too much swimming or tennis, at least for week or two, but a good walk by the sea or along the cliffs every day would do you a world of good. I will see you again when you come back, just to make sure you are all right. Donít worry about yourself. If that holiday in Cornwall doesnít work wonders I shall be very much surprised. Another month and youíll be as fit as a fiddle.
Mr. Priestley: Well, Olaf, you did that so well that I almost began to think you were ill. And if you were ill, I think a doctor like Pedro is just the man to cure you.
Pedro and Olaf: Thank you, sir.
Mr. Priestley: Well, Hob, you said you could tell a story for each of the Ďsituationsí I donít suppose you know one about a doctor.
Hob: Oh, yes, I do. Itís about a very simple country-woman who went to the doctor to tell him that her husband had a very severe headache. The doctor said: ĎI have so many patients coming to see me that I canít see your husband today. But do this: put some ice in a bag, tie it round his head and let me know how he is tomorrow.í
The next day the woman came again and the doctor said: ĎWell, how is your husband?í ĎOh,í she said, Ďhe is quite all right now, the headache has completely gone; but the mice are all deadí (She has heard Ďsome miceí instead of Ďsome iceí by mistake).
Mr. Priestley: I donít think a doctor prescribes for a person without seeing him. However, itís a good story.
Hob: Iíve never been a doctor in my life, but if the advice they give is to eat a lot, not work hard, and go away for a holiday, which is what the doctor seems to have told Olaf, I think Iíll see one tomorrow. But I once went to the dentist. May I tell you about that?
Mr. Priestley: By all means, I think it is an excellent idea.
Hob: I had had toothache for several days, but just hadnít enough courage to go to the dentist. As a matter of fact I went twice, but just as I got on his doorstep and was going to ring the bell, the toothache seemed to have gone away, so I went home again. But at last I had to go back, and this time I rang the bell and was shown into the waiting-room.
There were a number of magazines there, and I had just got into the middle of an exciting story when the maid came in to say Mr. Puller was ready to see me. Iíll have to wait for the next toothache to finish that story!
Well, I went into the surgery and he told me to sit in a chair that he could move up and down, backwards and forwards, and then he had a look at the inside of my mouth. He put a little mirror on a long handle inside my mouth and poked about for a while, then he looked serious and said: ĎYes, Iím afraid we canít save that one, it will have to come out. It wonít be necessary to give you gas for that.í So he filled a syringe with a liquid. I felt a little prick on the gum and that was all. He did this in two or three places and waited for a minute or so. My mouth felt rather dead, but otherwise it was all right. Then he took an instrument, got hold my tooth, gave a twist. (I could see and hear what he did, but I couldnít feel anything), then a quick pull, and the tooth was out and he was saying: ĎYes, itís all over. Spit in there and then wash your mouth out with this.í And he handled me a glass. ĎThere is the tooth, a very nasty oneí.
He was just going to throw it away, but I said: ĎMay I have that tooth, please?í ĎYou can certainly have it if you want ití, he said. ĎWell,í I replied, Ďit has worried me a good deal for the last week, and so now I am going to put it on my dressing-table and watch it acheí.
Mr. Priestley: Well done, Hob; you described that well.
Hob: But I must tell you about a friend of mine who went to a dentist Ė not a very good one Ė to have a tooth filled. The dentist got him in the chair and started drilling away at the tooth; it was one right at the back of his mouth. He went on and on for what seemed like hours. Then he stopped for a minute or two and said, ĎHavenít you had this tooth filled before?í ĎNo,í said my friend; and again the drilling went on. About another hour went by (at least it seemed like an hour) and again the dentist said, ĎAre you sure you havenít had this tooth filled? Iíve got a speck or two of gold on the drill.í ĎNo,í said my friend, Ďthatís not from my tooth; it must be from my back collar-stud.í
Exercise 7.1.Answer the following questions in class discussion:
1. Why does the doctor think that something is wrong with Mr. Peterson?
2. What conclusion does the doctor come to after examining him thoroughly?
3. Why is Mr. Peterson rather run down? What is meant by the phrase Ďrun downí?
4. What does the doctor advise his patient?
5. What in the doctorís opinion will Ďwork wondersí?
6. Do you like Hobís story about the doctor? Will you retell it?
7. What was funny about Hobís visiting a dentist?
8. Did Hob want to have his tooth pulled out?
9. Why did Hob ask a dentist to give him an extracted tooth?
10. Did Hobís friend go to a dentist to have his tooth filled or extracted?
11. What happened to Hobís friend while he was sitting in the chair?
12. What is meant by the phrase Ďthe ordinary doctorí?
13. When do people usually go to the dentist?
14. What common illnesses do you know? What diseases are considered contagious?
15. What things are used in medicine to prevent or cure illnesses?
16. Why is it recommended to consult the doctor when something troubles a person?
17. Do you like to see the doctor? Do you visit a doctor when you are in the best of health?
Exercise 7.2.Explain the following words and phrases as they have been used in the text. Translate them into Ukrainian:
To lose oneís appetite; to have rather a bad cough; to get rid of smth; to have a pain in oneís chest; to have a thorough examination; to be a little out of order; to unfasten oneís coat; to listen to oneís heart and chest; to lose (gain) oneís weight; to be rather run down; to burn the candle at both ends; a change of air and surroundings; to be very helpful; as a matter of fact; thatís just the thing; take it easy; a good walk by the sea or along the cliffs; to do smb a world of good; to make sure; to work wonders; to be as fit as a fiddle; to have a very severe headache; to let smb know; by mistake; to have a toothache; not to have enough courage to do smth; to be shown into the waiting-room; to move up and down, backwards and forwards; to have a look at the inside of oneís mouth; to fill a syringe with a liquid; to feel a little prick on the gum; to feel rather dead; to give a twist; a very nasty tooth; well done; to have a tooth filled; to start drilling away at the tooth; the ordinary doctor; the common illnesses; infectious or contagious diseases; to pass disease onto other people; to have a stomach-ache; to get blood poisoning; to prevent or cure illnesses.
Exercise 8. Act out the dialogues.
Doctor: Ah good morning, Mr Hudson. I see from your card that youíve just moved into the area and perhaps you could tell me a little about your previous health as I wonít get your records for another month, month or two, and then we can deal with your present problem.
Patient:Well, Iíve actually, Iíve always been very fit up till now.
D: Have you ever been in hospital?
P: Oh, only when I was a child. I had an appendicitis when I was eight.
D: Aha, and whatís your job, what do you do?
P: Well, I work for the post office, Iím a postmaster.
D: And I see that youíre what, 58, now, and have youÖ?
D: Have you always been with the post office?
P: Yes, well apart from my time in the army you knowÖ
D: I see. And youíre married. Any family?
P: Yes, two girls and a boy.
D: Fine. Thatís fine. Now can you tell me what seems to be the problem today?
P: Well, itís this terrible pain. Iíve got this terrible pain in my back. Iíve had it for more than a week now and itísÖ
D: I see, and can you show me exactly where it is?
P: Itís down here, here.
D: And does it go anywhere else?
P: Yes, it goes down my left leg. And I feel pins and needles in my foot.
D: I see, and is it there all the time?
P: Yes, yes it is. Itís keeping me awake at night and I canít get out into the garden. Iíve been taking aspirins but the pain, it just comes back again.
D: And was there anything that started it off?
P: Well, yes. Iíve been trying to sort out the garden at my new house and I donít know, I may have been overdoing things a bit.
D: Now, Mrs Brown, can you tell me, have you any trouble with your stomach or bowels?
P: Well, I sometimes get a bit of indigestion.
D: I see, and could you tell me more about that?
P: Well, it only comes on if I have a hot, something spicy, you know, like a curry.
D: I see, well thatís quite normal really. And whatís your appetite like?
P: Not bad.
D: And any problems with your waterworks?
P: No, theyíre all right.
D: And are you still having your periods regularly?
P: No, they stopped, must have been five years ago.
D: Any pain in the chest, any palpitation, swelling of the ankles?
P: Not really, doctor.
D: And what about coughs or wheezing or shortness of breath?
P: Only when Iíve got a cold.
D: Have you noticed any weakness or tingling in your limbs?
P: No, I canít say that I have, really.
D: What sort of mood have you been in recently?
P: Iíve been feeling a bit down. You know, Iím not sleeping well.
D: How long have you had this temperature?
P: Oh, I donít know exactly. About two months on and off.
D: And is the temperature there all the time or does it come on at any particular time?
P: Well, sometimes Iím all right during the day, but I wake up at night and Iím drenched in sweat, and sometimes my whole body shakes. D: How have you been feeling in general?
P: Well, I donít know, Iíve been feeing a bit tired and weak. And I just donít seem to have any energy.
D: Have you noticed any pain in your muscles?
P: Actually I have a bit, yes.
D: And what about your weight? Have you lost any weight?
P: Yes, yes, I have, about a stone (1 stone=14 pounds or 6.4 kg).
D: I see, and what about your appetite? Whatís your appetite been like?
P: Iíve really been off my food this last while. I just havenít felt like eating.
D: Have you had a cough at all?
P: Yes, I have. Nearly all the time. I sometimes bring up a lot of phlegm.
D: Have you noticed any blood in it?
P: No, not always but yes, sometimes.
D: Have you had any pains in your chest?
P: Only if I take a deep breath.
D: Good afternoon, Mr Hudson. Just have a seat. I havenít seen you for a good long time. Whatís brought you along here today?
P: Well, doctor. Iíve been having these headaches and I seem to have lost some weight.
D: I see, and how long have these headaches been bothering you?
P: Well, I donít know. For quite a while now. The wife passed away you know, about four months ago. And Iíve been feeling down since then.
D: And which part of your head is affected?
P: Just here. Just here on the top. It feels as if there were something heavy, a heavy weight pressing down on me.
D: Have they affected your vision at all?
P: No, no I wouldnít say so.
D: Not even seeing lights or black spots?
P: No, nothing like that.
D: And they havenít made you feel sick at all?
D: Now, you told me that youíve lost some weight. Whatís your appetite been like?
P: Well, actually, I havenít really been feeling like eating. Iíve already been off my food for the moment.
D: And what about your bowels, any problems?
P: No, no theyíre, Iím quite all right, no problems.
D: And what about your waterworks?
P: Well, Iíve been having trouble getting started and I have to, I seem to have to get up during the night, two or three times at night.
D: And has this come on recently?
P: No, not exactly. I think Iíve noticed it gradually over the past few months.
D: Do you get any pain when youíre passing water?
P: No, no.
D: Would you slip off your top things, please. Now I just want to see you standing. Hands by your side. Youíre sticking that hip out a little bit, arenít you?
P: Yes, well, I canít straighten up easily.
D: Could you bend down as far as you can with your knees straight and stop when youíve had enough.
P: Oh, thatís the limit.
D: Not very far, is it? Stand up again. Now I would like you to lean backwards. Thatís not much either. Now stand up straight again. Now first of all, I would like you to slide your right hand down the right side of your thigh. See how far you can go. Thatís fine. Now do the same thing on the opposite side. Fine. Now just come back to standing straight. Now keep your feet together just as they are. Keep your knees firm. Now try and turn both shoulders round to the right. Look right round. Keep your knees and feet steady.
P: Oh, thatís sore.
D: Go back to the centre again. Now try the same thing and go round to the left side. Fine. Now back to the centre. Thatís fine. Now would you like to get onto the couch and lie on your face? Iím just going to try and find out where the sore spot is.
D: Would you like to get onto the couch and lie on your back, please? Now Iím going to take your left leg and see how far we can raise it. Keep the knee straight. Does that hurt at all?
P: Yes, just a little. Just slightly.
D: Can I do the same with this leg? How far will this one go? Not very far. Now letís see what happens if I bend your toes back.
P: Oh, thatís worse.
D: Iím going to bend your knee. How does that feel?
P: A little better. D: Now letís see what happens when we straighten your leg again.
P: Thatís sore.
D: Iím just going to press behind your knee.
P: Oh, that hurts a lot.
D: Where does it hurt?
P: In my back.
D: Right. Now would you roll over onto your tummy? Bend your right knee. How does that feel?
P: Itís a little bit sore.
D: Now Iím going to lift your thigh off the couch.
P: Oh, that really hurts.
D: How are you, Mrs Wallace?
P: Iím fine.
D: Have you brought your urine sample?
P: Yes, here it is.
D: Iíll just check it. Fine, just slip off your coatÖ Urine is all clear. Now if youíd like to lie down on the couch, Iíll take a look at the baby. Iíll just measure to see what height it is. Right. The baby seems slightly small.
P: How do you know that?
D: I measure from the top of your womb to your pubic bone. The number of centimetres is roughly equal to the number of weeks youíre pregnant. In your case, itís 29 centimetres but youíre 32 weeks pregnant.
P: Why do you think the babyís small?
D: It might be because your dates are wrong. Remember you werenít sure of your last period. The best thing would be to have another scan done. Iíll make an appointment for you next week.
P: Which way round is the baby lying?
D: The babyís in the right position. Itís coming head first. Now Iím going to listen for the babyís heartbeat. Thatís fine. Can you hear it? Itís quite clear. Have you noticed any swelling of your ankles?
P: Not really.
D: Letís have a quick look. No, they seem to be all right. Now, would you like to sit up and Iíll take your blood pressure.
D: Itís quite normal. Now Iíll take a sample of blood to check your haemoglobin. Fine. You can get your shoes and coat on again now.
D:Hello, Mr Walters. How are you today?
P:Oh, Iím fine, very well, thank you.
D:You know who I am, donít you?
P:Now, let me see now. I know your face, but I canít quite place who you are. I think I know. I think I should know who you are. D:Well, thatís right. Iím Dr Williams. Iíve met you several times before, you know. P:Oh, youíre the doctor. Well, I remember old Dr Horsburgh quite well. I remember when he had a surgery down in the old Kirkgate, but I donít remember seeing him recently.
D:No, Dr Horsburghís been retired for a good number of years now. I took over his practice and Iíve seen you before. Maybe you donít recall that. Have you been here long?
P:Where do you mean?
D:In this house, have you been here long?
P:Oh, Iíve been here some time, I think.
D: Do you remember where it is? Where is this place?
P: Thisíll be High Street, isnít it?
D: Yes, this is the High Street. How long have you been living in High Street?
P: Oh, it must be a good number of years now. I, my mother used to stay down in North High Street of course, and I used to stay with her, but when I got married I moved up here. Oh, that must be a good number of years. I canít quite remember the time.
D: Do you remember when you were born? What was the year of your birth? Can you remember that?
P: Oh, yes. I was born in 1913.
D: What month were you born in? Do you remember that?
P: Oh, yes. Iím an April baby. I was always an April baby. Not an April fool, not the 1st of April, you know.
D: How old will you be now, do you think?
P: Iíve retired now. I must be about 69, I think.
D: Well, thereís no doubt the years go by. What year is it this year? Do you know that?
P: Well, thisíll be about 1989 now, I suppose.
D: Fine, and what month are we in?
P: Oh, now let me see. I canít remember, doctor.
D: Well, tell me, is it summer or winter?
P: I suppose itís so cold it must be the winter time. Itíll be January. Is that right?
D: Well, actually itís February now, but it feels as though it was January, doesnít it? Do you remember what day of the week it is? Or do the days not mean a great deal to you now that youíre not working?
P: Oh, youíre right the days seem to run into each other, but thisíll be Tuesday, I think. No, itíll be Wednesday, isnít it?
D: I suppose that Wednesday or Thursday, one day tends to become much the same as the other when weíre not working. Isnít that right?