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The Present Continuous

11.The Present Continuous is an analytical form which is
built up by means of the auxiliary verb tobe in the Present Indefi-
nite and the ing-form of the notional verb (e.g. I am working. He
is working,
etc.). The same auxiliary is used in the interrogative
and the negative form (e.g. Are you working? Is he working? We
are not working. He is not working,
etc.). In spoken English the
contracted forms I', he's and we're should be used in affirma
tive sentences and isn't and aren't in negative sentences.


The ing-form, is built up by adding the suffix -ing to the stem
of the verb (e.g. speak speaking).

In writing the following spelling rules should be observed:

a) A mute -e at the end of the verb is dropped before the suffix
-ing (e.g. close closing, make making).

b) A final consonant is doubled if it is preceded by a short
stressed vowel or if a verb ends in a stressed -er (-ur) (e.g. cut
cutting, begin beginning, prefer preferring, occur occur-
ring),

c) A final -I is always doubled in British English (e.g. travel
travelling, quarrel quarrelling).

d) A final -y is preserved no matter what sound it is preceded
by (e.g. study studying, stay staying).

e) A final ie changes into -y (e.g. tie tying, lie lying).

12. The Present Continuous is used with dynamic verbs in

the following cases:

1) To express an action going on at the present moment, i.e.
the moment of speaking.

The precise time limits of the action are not known, its begin-
ning and its end are not specified. The indication of time is not
necessary in this case though occasionally such adverbial modifiers
as now and at present are found.

e.g. "Do you know where Philip is?" "I expect he istalking to

Mother."

I asked: "Is anything new happening?"
"Oh, hullo," he said. "Do you want to see me?" "No, thanks.

I'm looking for my father."

Tears flowed slowly down her cheeks. "What are you crying

for?"

"Oh, mummy! The eggs are burning!The coffee is boiling over!
Where is the large tray? Where do you keep things?" cried
Adeline.

2) To express an action going on atthe present period.In this
case the precise time limits of the action are not known either. Be-
sides, the action may or may not be going on at the actual moment
of speaking. As in the previous case, indications of time are not
necessary here either.


e.g. But you've not been in England much lately. Public opinion

is changing. I must tell you about it.
"And what are you doing in Geneva?" "I'm writing a play,"

said Ashenden.
The great detective has retired from business. He is growing

roses in a little cottage in Dorking.
I stay indoors most of the time. I'm catching up with my

studies.
They're getting ready to move to their new house.

Sometimes this Present Continuous shows that for the time be-
ing a certain action happens to be the most important and charac-
teristic occupation for its doer (for this see the last four examples
above).



Note. Notice the phrase to be busy doing something. It is synonymous in
meaning with the Present Continuous in the first and second cases of its use. The
phrase is very common in English.

e.g. Father is busy cutting the grass in the garden.
Nigel is busy getting himself into Parliament.

3) To express actions generally characterizing the person de-
noted by the subject, bringing out the person's typical traits. Of-
ten the adverbial modifiers always and constantly are found in
these sentences,
e.g. People are always blaming their circumstances for what they

are.
"You're always showing off," she said to her brother in a loud

whisper.
Her husband retorted: "You're constantly complaining that you

have too much to do."

The Present Continuous in this case imparts a subjective, emo-
tionally coloured tone. When no emotional colouring is implied,
the Present Indefinite is used to give an objective characteristic
(see "Verbs", 10, b).

Cf.: Old uncle Harry is always thinking he's going to be ruined.
You people always think I've a bag of money.

Note. Note the following sentence patterns, in which recurrent actions are
made emotionally coloured by the use of the Present Continuous.


e.g- I wonder if all grown-up people play in that childish way when nobody is looking?
When Adeline is grinning we know she is happy.
When I see him he is always eating something.

4) To express actions which will take place in the near future
due to one's previous decision. For that reason the action is re-
garded as something definitely settled. We usually find an indica-
tion of future time in this case (see also "Verbs", 47).

e.g. "I am sailing early next month," he said.
Are you dining out tonight?

He is having a meeting with the men this afternoon.
"I'm staying the night at Green Street," said Val.

13. As has been said above, the Present Continuous is used with
dynamic verbs. However, some stative verbs (see "Verbs", 2, 2)
when they change their meaning can be used in the Continuous form.

e.g. "Are you seeing Clare tonight?" she asked.
He said, "I'm seeing you home."

"Are you going in the water?" Sybil said. "I'm seriously con-
sidering it."

Jane turned away. "The thing to do," she said, "is to pay no
attention to him. He is just being silly."

Note. Notice that in cases like those above the verb to be is close to to behave
in meaning.

Special attention should be paid to the verb to have which in
its original meaning 'to possess' does not admit of the continuous
form.

e.g. Suddenly he came in and said: "Have you a letter for me,

postman?"

But with a change of its meaning, the use of the continuous
form becomes the rule if it is required by the sense. Namely, it oc-
curs when to have is part of set phrases, as in: to have a bath, to
have a good holiday, to have a party, to have a smoke, to have a
walk, to have coffee, to have dinner, to have something done, to
have to do something, to have trouble
and the like.

e.g. "Where is Mr Franklin?" he asked. "He's having a bath.
He'll be right out."


I know you are havingyour difficulties.

My village will be as pretty as a picture. Trees along the
street. You see, I'm havingthem planted already.

Some of the other verbs included in the list of stative verbs
may also be occasionally used in the continuous form. Then the ac-
tions indicated by these verbs express great intensity of feeling.

e.g. "You'll find it a great change to live in New York." "At the

present time I'm hatingit," she said in an expressionless

tone.
"Strange," he said, "how, when people are either very young

or very old, they arealways wantingto do something they

should not do."
Dear Amy, I've settled in now and I am likingmy new life very

much.

14. Some durative verbs, for example, verbs of bodily sensa-
tion (to ache, to feel, to hurt, to itch, etc.) and such verbs as to
wear, to look
(= to seem), to shine and some other can be used ei-
ther in the Present Indefinite or in the Present Continuous with
little difference in meaning.

Cf. You're looking well, cousin Joan.
You lookquite happy today.

"I know what you arefeeling, Roy," she said. "We all feelex-
actly the same."


Date: 2016-01-03; view: 844


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