Complete the sentences using a preposition from the box and the gerund of the verbs in brackets. Use some prepositions more than once .
For , at , about , in , to , of , after
1. What shall we do in the evening ? How … (go) to the cinema ? 2. Are you interested … (learn) to play the piano? 3. I am not used … (eat) much spicy food. 4. Did she apologizes … (be) late ? 5. She is very good … (paint) and (draw) .6 . He is tired … (hear) her complain. 7. She thanked me … (give) her a lift in my car. 8. …(have) breakfast I did the washing up. 9. He is still fond … (play) tennis and golf.10. I suspect him … (destroy) these papers.
Answer the following questions according to the example.
Example : What did they speak of ? (buy a house on the Thames)
They spoke about buying a house on the Thames.
1. What did she accuse her maid of ? (steal a golden ring). 2. What are you thinking of ? (move to a new flat) 3. Are there any things he approves of? (play tennis and chess). 4. What do you suspect him of (tell lies all the time). 5. What did she succeed in? (find a good husband). 6. What did she complain of? (be cheated in the shop). 7. What are you looking forward to? ( see the New Year in). 8. What does he insist on? (start at once).9. What will she agree to? (spend holidays in the country). 10. What is your brother fond of? (collect stamps).
Insert the required form of gerund of the verb in brackets. Mind prepositions.
1. He had that dislike … (stare) at which never leaves the commonplace. 2. He had … (write) a pad on his knee. 3. Before … (write) you should clean your fountain- pen. 4. But it’s no good … (ask) me about his wife’s will. 5. “Very well”, he said and went on … (fish).6. There is only one thing in the world worse than … (talk about) and that is not (talk about). 7. She is a very practical woman and … (run) things.8. He could not bear the idea … (reproach) by him any more. 9. He appeared almost to dislike … (hear) music.
Find in the texts A and B sentences where Gerund is used and translate them into Kazakh.
Use the gerund of the verb in brackets in the active or passive form.
1. (talk) to him was like (play) upon the exquisite violin. 2. It seems awful (plant) myself on you. 3. Then suddenly she stopped (laugh) and frowned. 4. There is no sense in (talk) to him. 5. No one likes (make) to look a perfect damned fool. 6. I don’t mind (tell) you what I do know. 7. We did not mind (question) by the police. 8. I really shouldn’t dream of (ask) her. 9. He didn’t go without (congratulate) by Amy. 10. The door opened quietly and he went without (say) a word. 11. Even a criminal must be told the nature of his crime before (convict). 12. The boy is fond of (play) with pebbles.
Grammar: 1. Absolute
Participle Construction § 9.
2. Text: Water
salty, small, hot, evaporate, rise, fresh, cold, absorb, fall, large
IV. Read and translate the text A:
Water is the most common substance on earth. It covers more than 70 per cent of the earth’s surface. It fills the oceans, rivers, and is in the ground and in the air we breathe. Water is everywhere. Without water, there can be no life. In fact, every living thing consists mostly of water. Your body is about two- thirds water. A chicken is about three- fourths water, and a pineapple is about four- fifths water. Most scientists believe that life itself began in water – in the salty water of the sea.
Ever since the world began, water has been shaping the earth. Rain hammers at the land and washes soil into rivers. The oceans pound against the shores, chiseling cliffs and carrying away land. Rivers knife through rock, carve canyons, and build up land where they empty into the sea. Glaciers plow valleys and cut down mountains. Water helps keep the earth’s climate from getting too hot or too cold. Land absorbs and releases heat from the sun quickly. But the oceans absorb and release the sun’s heat slowly. So breezes from the oceans bring warmth to the land in winter and in winter and coolness in summer.
Throughout history, water has been people’s slave – and their master. Great civilizations have risen where water supplies were plentiful. They have fallen when these supplies failed. People have killed one another for a muddy water hole. They have worshiped rain gods and prayed for rain. Often, when rains have failed to come, crops have withered and starvation has spread across a land. Sometimes the rains have fallen too heavily and too suddenly. Then rivers have overflowed their banks, drowning large numbers of people and causing enormous destruction of property.
Today, more than ever, water is both slave and master to people. We use water in our homes for cleaning, cooking, bathing, and carrying away wastes. We use water to irrigate dry farmlands so we can grow more food. Our factories use more water than any other material. We use the water in rushing rivers and thundering waterfalls to produce electricity.
Our demand for water is constantly increasing. Every year, there are more people in the world. Factories turn out more and more products, and need more and more water. We live in a world of water. But almost all of it – about 97 per cent – is in the oceans. This water is too salty to be used for drinking, farming, and manufacturing. Only about 3 per cent of the world’s water is fresh (unsalty). Most of this water is not easily available to people because it is locked in icecaps and other glaciers. By the year 2000, the world demand for fresh water may be double what it was in the 1980's.’But there will still be enough to meet people's needs.
V. Answer the following questions :
1) What is water ? What forms of water do you know ?
2) How much per cent does water cover the earth’s surface ?
3) Where does water flow ?
4) Can we live without water ? Why ?
5) Every living thing consists mostly of water, doesn’t it ? Do you know any facts about it ?
6) Is water slave or master to people ?
7) What negative or positive sides of water do you know ?
Interesting facts about water.
1 mile = 1.609 km ( one thousand 6 hundred and 9 km.)
1 gallon (gal) = 4.546 litres (British)
= 3.785 litres (US)
VI. Read and translate text B:
“ Water Is Life.”
Water is the natural resource we all know very well. We know its many forms – rain, snow, ice, hail, vapour, fog. Yet, water is the natural resource we least understand.
How does water get into the clouds? What happens when it reaches the Earth? Why is there sometimes too much and other times too little of it? And, most important, is there enough water for all the plants, and all the animals, and all the people?
Water covers nearly three fourths of the Earth, most being sea water. But sea water contains various salts, including those that are harmful to most land plants and animals. Still, it is from the salty seas and oceans that most of our fresh water comes- no longer salty and harmful. Water moves from clouds to land and back to the ocean in a never- ending cycle.
Ocean water evaporates into atmosphere leaving salts behind, and moves across the Earth as water vapour. Water in lakes and rivers also evaporates and rises into the air. Having cooled in the air the water vapour condenses and falls to the Earth as rain, hail or snow, depending on region, climate, season and topography. This part of the cycle is very important because man can use water stored in the atmosphere only when it falls to the land.
Every year about 450,000 cubic kilometers of water evaporates from the oceans and about 61,000 cubic kilometers from land sources.
Water is an unchanging and ever renewing resource but its distribution on the surface of the globe varies greatly – there is either too little or too much water. Many problems are caused by too much water when we do not want it or too little when we do want it.
No natural resource on our planet has so many uses as water. We need water to support our lives, to grow our crops, to water our stock, to power our industries and for many other purposes.
Our water needs are great and they continue to grow. Agriculture requires great quantities of water to provide food and raw materials for industry. Industry consumes not less water than agriculture. Per capita use of water is increasing rapidly in the world.
There is plenty of water on the Earth. But the amount of fresh water available to man is very small.
In socialist society measures are taken against waste of water and pollution of water. We have to use water more efficiently in industry, towns and cities, in agriculture and irrigation. All life depends on water.
1. Salt water which covers most of the Earth’s surface. 2. The planet on which we live. 3. The system of things of which we ourselves are a part. 4. The mixture of gases that surrounds the earth. 5. The common liquid which fills the rivers, lakes, seas and oceans. 6. Water vapour either in the air or condensed on a surface.7. Any form of vegetable life. 8. Any kind of plant which is used for food. 9. The earth in which things grow. 10. The surface of the Earth. 11. The solid part of the Earth’s surface contrasted with water and sea.
VIII. Tell about “Water cycle”.
IX. Find opposite words:
a) to fall, to appear, to heat, to evaporate, moist, cold, to give, far, always, easy, heat, to decrease, to produce, to die, useful, inefficient, salt.
b) To disappear, to rise, to cool, efficient, harmful, to live, never, difficult, to condense, to take, hot, dry, fresh, near, cold, to increase, to consume.
X. Find odd words :
1. heat, light, motion, surface ; 2. a plant, a crop, an animal, a hat, a man; 3.
5. quickly, directly, fast, slowly, rapidly; 6. an ocean, a lake , an inch, a river, a sea; 7. to plow, to sow, to plant, to harm, to cultivate, to harvest.
XI. Read and translate text C :
“ Mice Under Water.”
Words To Help You Understand the Passage
temperature Temperature is how cold or how hot something is. It is usually
measured by a thermometer.
carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide is a gas that is passed out of the lungs during
fluid-filled Fluid is another word for liquid. Fluid- filled means something is
filled with a liquid.
Mice can live for many hours under water. A team of scientists has found that rodents can breath under water if two conditions are met. The water must contain salts and it must have more oxygen than is usually found in water.
The scientists were led to their experiments by a study of how animals and people drown. Mice were put under water and were watched until their breathing stopped. When the tank was filled with ordinary sea water or tap water, the mice died quickly. When it was filled with a salt solution in which the salt solution in which the salt was equal to that in the mouse’s body and when oxygen was bubbled into it, the mice lived for as long as four hours. When the temperature was held at 20º C. and a chemical was added to improve carbon dioxide exchange, the mice lived to a maximum of nearly 18 hours.
The water- breathing rodents may provide a means of studying breathing problems in newborn infants who live in a fluid- filled womb up to the moment of birth.