I. Read and translate the following words and word – combinations:
Environment, external, human, to include, to supply, soil, sunlight, seaweed, both...and, interact, water, current, to influence, weather, nutrients, to maintain, circulation, digestion, study, relationship, survival, to depend on (upon), to eat(ate, eaten), to surround.
II. Arrange the following words in pairs of a) synonyms, b) antonyms
a) to supply, soil, to influence, to maintain, to eat, to interact, to learn, to protect, to support, to feed, to study, to defense, to provide, land, to affect, to relate.
b) to include, external, to eat, internal, to depend on, to die, living, to starve, to live, hot, evaporate, to exclude, to be independent, nonliving, cold, to condense, to build, to destroy.
Word - building
- ment – development, environment
- ture – temperature, literature
- al – environmental, principal
- inter – interact, interchange
- tion – composition, condition
- ic – biotic, abiotic
III. Read and translate the text:
Environment is everything that is external to an organism. A human being’s environment includes such factors as temperature, food supply, and other people. A plant’s environment may be made up of soil, sunlight, and animals that will eat the plant. Nonliving environmental factors, such as temperature and sunlight, make up the abiotic environment. Living or recently living things, such as seaweed and food, make up the biotic environment. Both the abiotic and biotic environments interact to make up the total environment of living or nonliving things.
Abiotic environment includes such factors as soil, water, atmosphere, and radiation. The abiotic environment is made up of many objects and forces that influence one another. For example, a river’s current, temperature, clearness, and chemical composition will influence what kinds of plants and animals live there and how they live.
One important group of abiotic environmental factors makes up weather. Other abiotic factors include the amount of living space and certain nutrients. All organisms must have nonliving nutrients, such as phosphorus, to maintain such body activities as circulation and digestion. Ecology is the study of the relationships between organisms and their environment. Biotic environment includes food, plants, animals, and their interactions among one another and the abiotic environment. A human being’s survival and well-being depend largely on the foods eaten, such as fruit, vegetables, and meat. It also depends on associations with other living things. For example, some bacteria in the digestive tract help a person digest certain foods. Social and cultural surroundings are an important part of a person’s biotic environment.
IV. Answer the following questions:
1. What is environment?
2. What factors does human beings environment include?