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For the past few decades many forms of tourism, also known as niche tourism, have been becoming more popular, particularly:

Adventure tourism – is a grassroots effort to support independent bookstores by promoting them as a travel destination.
Agritourism – sustainable tourism which has minimal impact on the environment, such as safaris (Kenya) and Rainforests (Belize), or national parks.
Armchair tourism or virtual tourism – includes urban tourism, visiting historical or interesting cities, such as London, Paris, Prague, Rome, Cairo, Beijing, Kyoto, and experiencing their cultural heritages. May also consist of specialized cultural experiences, such as art museum tourism where one visits many art museums during the tour, or opera tourism where one sees many operas or concerts during the tour.
Bookstore Tourism – travelling to such places as Atlantic City, Las Vegas, Macau or Monte Carlo for the purpose of gambling at the casinos there.
Cultural tourism – farm based tourism, helping to support the local agricultural economy.
Disaster tourism – involves travelling to an education institution, a wooded retreat or some other destination in order to take personal- interest classes, including cooking classes with a famous chef or crafts classes.
Ecotourism – not travelling physically, but exploring the world through internet, books, TV, etc.
Educational tourism – travelling to a disaster scene not primarily for; helping, but because one finds it interesting to see. It can be a problem if it hinders rescue, relief and repair work.
Gambling tourism – tourism involving travel in rugged regions, or adventurous sports such as mountaineering and hiking (tramping).


Choose the right word from the list below. Mind forms of the words. Translate the article.


In the 18th century, the Grand Tour was a kind of __________ for wealthy British noblemen. It was a period of European __________ which could last from a few months to 8 years. During the tour, young men learned about the politics __________ , art and antiquities of neighboring countries. They spent their time sightseeing, studying, and __________ . Italy with its heritage of __________ Roman monuments; became one of the most popular places to visit. At the same time, art students from all parts of Europe also came to Italy to __________ from ancient models. Sometimes, the trip south was as liberating sexually as it was aesthetically, as several erotic drawings show. France was the height of style and __________ , so young men went there to throw off their coarse behavior and put on the __________ that set them apart as the aristocracy of Britain. Under the __________ eye of his tutor and cared for by his valet, the young man set off. The first __________ in the tour was to cross the English Channel to Calais, France. For many young men, this was a test in itself since seasickness was often the __________ of turbulent crossing. In Paris, all outward __________ of the backward Briton were erased as he was fitted for a totally French wardrobe. Dressed like a Frenchman, he was now ready to __________ to French society. After his introduction in Paris, the tourist went on to Dijon, Lyon, and finally Marseille. During the 19th century, most educated young men took the __________ . Later, it became also fashionable for young women. A trip to Italy with a __________ aunt as chaperon was part of the upper-class lady's education.

Education, sophistication, spinster, watchful, ancient, polish, shopping, travel, result, culture, grand tour, trace, to learn, to introduce, step.


12. Fill in the blanks with prepositions, adverbs, articles where / necessary.


Six UK cities have been short-listed ... the most coveted prize ... Europe: the title European Capital ... Culture 2008. Though that year seems a long way off (the first European capital will be ... Ireland ... 2005 and the final UK nomination ... 2008 announced ... the British Prime Minister this May) the finalists are all surprisingly good destinations ... culture vultures right now. The proliferation ... low-cost airlines also means they have never been more accessible: making them ideal ... short breaks or as touring bases ... longer stays. The transformation that has taken place ... the cities – Birmingham, Bristol, Cardiff, Liverpool, Oxford and Newcastle-Gateshead – has been remarkable. All, ... the possible exception ... Oxford, were traditionally thought ... as centres ... industry and commerce rather than art and culture (the same was said ... Glasgow, Scotland, honoured as City ... Culture ... 1990). Things have changed. Each has become a showcase ... culture, creativity and regeneration. Industrial relics have been transformed ... temples ... art. New and arresting architecture is complementing the old. Fashionable waterfronts have become places to linger. Youthful energy and vitality is everywhere. Though there can only be one Capital ... Culture ... 2008 there are no losers ... this contest. The runners-up will be titled Centres ... Culture, ensuring they are popular ... visitors ... a long time to come.

…Hilary Macaskill

NOTE: ... this article was written the winning city has been announced: Liverpool.


Date: 2016-01-03; view: 2274

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