Translate the following sentences into Russian and substitute the Absolute Participle Construction by clauses and vice versa.
a) 1. The temperature and air conditions being favourable, the plant begins to grow. 2. The supply of food provided by wild plants and animals having become insufficient, primitive man began to grow plants.3. Good storage conditions having been provided, the seeds retainedtheir good quality and viability.
b) 1. After more favourable conditions had been created, the plants grew to a greater size. 2. Nowadays people know a great number of plant species and the best know among them are the most useful to man. 3. As the day was warm we decided to plant some fruit trees.
4.22 Translate into Russian:
1. The chemists have developed new polymers, some of them having a high degree of strength. 2. The conversation was interesting, many students taking part in it. 3. Medium temperature between 200° and 250° Ñ having been maintained, a new artificial substance was obtained.
4. In the cells there is often division of labour, particular cells being more concerned with some life functions than with others. 5. Already about 350,000 different kinds of plants have been studied and named, new kinds being discovered each year. 6. The temperature of the tissue rising dangerously, water will evaporate through the mesophill cells. 7. Conifers being beautiful trees, many people like to have them around their houses to decorate the landscape. 8. The botany-zoology system grew up naturally as biological science developed, the emphasis during its early years being placed on structure and relationships.
Note the use of verbals in translate them into Russian.
Everyone has seen animals in cages even though they may not like the idea. Believe it or not cages plants also exist. They are the Wallemi Pine, possibly the world’s oldest plants, and have been kept for breeding and research purposes. The Wallemi Pine, which flourished in Australia before continental drift made for a drier climate, was discovered in 1994, after having been thought to be extinct for between 20 and 40 million years. It had previously been found only in fossilized form.
The present specimens, discovered in the Blue Mountains in New South Wales, have been dated to over1,000 years old. It is hoped that the 38 genetlcally identical plants will thrive, despite the danger of disease which would arise from their sharing the same DNA. One thing for sure, the Wallemi Pine will not be able to escape from their cages.
Read the text and answer the questions.
1. How do living things differ?
Biology is the scientific study of living things. There are more than 2 million species of living things on the earth. They range in size from microscopic bacteria to huge blue whales and towering redwood trees. Living things also differ greatly in where and how they live. However, all forms of life share certain characteristics that set them apart from nonliving things. These characteristics include the ability to reproduce, to grow, and to respond to changes in the environment.
2. What is biology divided into?
Traditionally, biology has been divided into two major fields. Botany deals with plants, and zoology with animals. Botany and zoology are further divided into various branches and specialized areas of study. But most branches of biology – for example, anatomy (the study of the structure of living things) and genetics (the study of heredity) – apply to both plants and animals.
Biology may also be divided into ecology, physiology, and systematics. Ecology deals with the relationships among living things and between organisms and their environment. Physiology concerns life functions, such as digestion and respiration. Systematics, also called taxonomy, is the scientific classification of plants and animals.
3. Findings of what sciences do biologists make use of?
Biologists often make use of the methods and findings of other sciences. For instance, they rely on physics and chemistry to help them understand the processes that occur in living plants and animals. They use statistics in studying changes in the size of an animal or plant population – that is, the number of organisms of a particular species in an area. Exobiologists work with astronomers in searching for life elsewhere in the universe.
4. How has biological research affected people's lives?
Biological research has greatly affected people's lives. For example, farm production has soared as biologists have helped develop better varieties of plants and new agricultural techniques. Biologists also work in industry especially the pharmaceutical and food industries. Biotechnologists develop new methods for the ðãåðàãàtion of products using microorganisms. Discoveries in biology have enabled doctors to prevent, treat, or cure many diseases. Research on the relationships between living things and their environment has helped in the management of wildlife and other natural resources.