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NOUNS THAT HAVE NO SEPARATE PLURAL FORMS

They include:

a) Names of certain animals, fish and birds that are traditionally used for food, e.g.

deer, sheep, swine, grouse, partridge, pheasant, salmon, cod, plaice, trout, carp, pike, etc.

The hunters brought home two wild deer and several partridge.

b) Nouns meaning nationality, e.g.

a Japanese - Japanese, a Swiss - Swiss, a Portuguese – Portuguese,

The Japanese is a very wise nation. (The definite article is used to indicate the whole nation)

The three Japanese we met were very friendly.

There were Swiss, Germans and a Portuguese in that group of students.

BUT:

an Englishman – Englishmen/ Englishwoman – Englishwomen; the English (the whole nation)

a Frenchman – Frenchmen/ a Frenchwoman – Frenchwomen; the French (the whole nation)

a Dutchman – Dutchmen, the Dutch (the whole nation)

a Russian – Russians; a German – Germans

c) Nouns meaning some special technical terms, e.g.

aircraft – We saw two aircraft in the distance.

8. NOUNS OF GREEK AND LATIN ORIGIN

Some of them have regular plural forms while others still keep old ones that need to be remembered. There are some regular patterns in their formation that can help you remember them,

1. -us changes into–i, e.g. a nucleus – nuclei; a focus – foci;

2. -achanges into–ae, e.g. a formula – formulae;

3. -umchanges into–a, e.g. a datum – data; a curriculum – curricula;

4. -ischanges into–es, e.g. a crisis - crises; a diagnosis –diagnoses;

an analysis – analyses; a parenthesis – parentheses;

5. –on changes into – a, e.g. a phenomenon – phenomena; criterion - criteria

9. NOUNS USED ONLY IN THE SINGULAR FORM (SINGULARIA TANTUM) OR AGREEING WITH SINGULAR VERBS

a) Mass nouns, e.g.

iron, glass, butter, sand, etc.

Glass was invented in Ancient China.

Do not confuse mass and common nouns. Compare:

We need a new iron. This bridge is made of iron.

b) Names of diseases - they always agree with a singular verb, e.g.

mumps, measles, plague, flu, pneumonia, etc.

Mumps isn’t as dangerous now as it used to be.

c) Names of some games - they always agree with a singular verb, e.g.

billiards, drafts, bowls, dominoes, cards, etc.

Dominoes is a very useful game in teaching foreign languages to children.

d) Names of sciences and other fields of people’s activity that end in “-ics”, e.g. physics, linguistics, mathematics, gymnastics, politics, etc.

Physics is a difficult subject.

BUT: StatisticsIS very important in every research. (science) ≠ These statistics ARE misleading. (facts)

d) Abstract notions (uncountable nouns), e.g.

money, knowledge, information, advice, progress, success, news, means, weather, furniture, help, etc.

Little knowledge is a dangerous thing.

It is easier to give advice than to follow it.

No news isgood news.

Bad news travels fast.

What is the news?

Where is the money? It is on the table.

Money is the root of all evil.

It was really nasty weather. (The indefinite article can never be used with this noun!)



The weather today is so nice that it is difficult to stay indoors.

NOTES:

To make some of these nouns countable, use the words PIECE or BIT,

That was a very interesting piece/ bit of news.

My uncle gave me three pieces of advice of which I found only one reasonable enough.

· Some abstract uncountable nouns can be used with indefinite articles in some set expressions,


Date: 2016-01-03; view: 754


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TRADITIONAL EXCEPTIONS | NOUNS USED ONLY IN THE PLURAL FORM (PLURALIA TANTUM)
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