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The Economic, Political and Cultural Development of Kyrgyzstan in the 1950-70s.

Economic and political progress of Kyrgyzstan in the first post-war decade.

After the Second World War Kyrgyzstan faced great economical troubles, especially with agriculture, because there were not enough workers.

Priorities in economy metalworking, power generating, light, food industries. Collective farms were released from paying any debts to government, taxes amount also reduced.

So, in 60s agriculture of Kyrgyzstan was badly developed in comparison with common economical development.

Big factories were created in Kyrgyzstan. They were important for the whole central Asian region and Kazakhstan. Toctoguls HPP (Hydroelectric Power Plant) was providing not only cheap power for the region, but also guaranteed watering of Uzbekistan fields.

Fuel-energetical sector of Kyrgyzstan was effectively developing.

From the beginning of 60s level of agriculture mechanization has increased. A lot of new tractors and vehicles were received by collective farms and state farms, but sometimes hand working was also used.

Process of rising of Stalins severe system started after Hruschevs resignation. Age of terror returned to the people in October of 1964.

Division of agriculture by territories was ineffective, Sovnarkhozes were being removed and country in 1965 has returned to an old centralized principles.

From 1966 number of politicians in Kyrgyzstan were increased more than on 50%.

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There was an unevenness of industry: The lack of local professionals.

Post-War development:

1) Extensive industrial development

- Heavy industry

- Light industry

2) Cult of Stalin

1953 Hrushev criticized the Cult of Stalin

Nikolai Hrushev 1953-1964 Ottepel politics.

 

Reforms of the Hrushev

  • Political sector: 1953-1964 N.S.Khrushev made speech named the Disclosure of Cult of Personality of Stalin. 6 plan (1956-1960) the development of branch specialization and rationalization of industrial connections between different economic and administrative regions.
  • Economic sector: there was no breakdown on the territory of Kyrgyzstan. From 1946 the industry of Kyrgyzstan began to produce peaceful products. On the plants and fabrics were established on 8 hours working day with week-ends and vacations. Thanks to newborn industry in Kyrgyzstan the economical development had been developed faster.
  • But there were some problems. The lack of financial support and material and technical provision of the villages was a result of politics made in the 30s. There was obligatory planning of products to the state with costs less in 10-12 times than market costs. The chief of kolkhoz were elected by communist parties, not by peasants.
  • Agrarian sector: In 1947 to the kolkhozes were given 38,6 000 hectare of the land, 2416 horses, 665 live-stocks and 20,2 sheep and goats.
  • By the end of 5-plan the crop capacity was lower to 46,5% than in the 1928.
  • In 1953-1964 this period is characterized as a fighting against Stalins cult.
  • In 1953 after the death of Stalin Nikita Khrushev was chosen as a Secretary of Communist Party. During repression politics of Stalin in the 30-s 40,000 people killed. On that time the population of Kyrgyzstan was 1. 4 mln.
  • In Khrushev ruling there was rehabilitation of people who were convicted unjustly. Razzakov Iskhak (1910-1979) he was a leader and a Secretary of Central Committee of Communist Party in Kyrgyzstan from 1950-1961. Khrushev put into practice a 7-year economic development plan. The main aim of the soviet economy in that time was to run down and over-cross America.
  • 1964-1985 this period called as period of the developed socialism. In this period the role of Communist Party became dominantly in the different spheres. The Communist Party became a bureaucratic Party.
  • By the Constitution of the USSSR 1977 the role of Communist Party considered as totalitarian and leading.

 



The prime goal of Hrushev was to beat and overrun USA in the production of butter, meat and corn.

 

25. Kyrgyzstan and Central Asia during the Perestroika of 1985-1990.

 

In mid 1980s it became obvious that USSR got bogged down in economic, social and political crises. Therefore, in March 11 of 1985 M.S. Gorbachev was chosen as a secretary-general of the party ( ). He understood that its impossible to work as before and proposed in Plenum of April, 1985 new reforms on solving questions of social and political life of the country.

In Kyrgyzstan, with Gorbachev coming to power, Turdakun Usubaliev was withdrawn (he was ruling almost 25 years). He was replaced by Absamat Masaliev.

On the 28th congress of the party the new document was adopted 1986 1990. 2000.. In the Januarys Plenum of the party Gorbachev announced new politics of glasnost (-publicity). Mass media communication started informing the public about everything.

The new situation started in 1988-1989 in USSR and Kyrgyzstan as well. The full politicization of society started. In Kyrgyzstan discussion and political clubs opened. One of the first such clubs was Demos under newspaper . Another club which actively participated in social life was Zamandash under the factory of electronic calculating machines. But they would not dare move to opposition, and could not actually.

The discussion clubs Zamandash, Akyikat, Koz Karash, and United Initiative Youth showed up themselves particularly.

In 1989 with the start of election campaign these clubs moved from discussing to acting. They actively participated in campaigns.

Also in spring of 1989 national movements started. The Kyrgyz Youth independently seized territories in outlying districts of Bishkek. In southern part national consolidation of Kyrgyz and Uzbek were formed (Osh Aimagy-kyrgyz, Adolat-uzbek).

In the establishment of pluralism (multi=party system) quite important role played Ashar, which in short terms transformed from association defending society from unauthorized builders to political organization. Another important players were national and democratic associations Asaba and Uluttuk Demilge. These two new associations splitted with Ashar and formed Democratic Movement of Kyrgyzstan (). Other later formed associations were spliited-off formations like Progressive-Democratic Party Erkin Kyrgyzstan and Party of national rebirth Asaba.

Due to increasing political activity of Kyrgyzstans population and rebirth of national self-consciousness, Supreme Council of Kyrgyz SSR adopted in September 23 of 1989 the Law About State language Kyrgyz SSR, in which Kyrgyz language was proclaimed as State language. In 1990 the Plenum of the party agreed on the elimination of the 6th article from Constitution of SSR, which was about the governing role of party in Soviet society.

As with economics, now it was moving towards economic methods of managing. As a result the enterprises and agricultural production gained more independence. In 1986 most of enterprises moved to such form of managing (self-management, self-finance, self-repayment). In 1987 perestroika spread to other spheres such as transport, communication, trade etc. In 1987 on the session of Supreme Council of USSR new strategic decision was adopted on moving to market economy. Till 1990 there were big discussions and controversy about how to build new economic system. In 1990 on the congress and October Plenum of the party it was decided on further economic reforms and concrete ways of transforming to market economy. In 1991 of August 7 in Kyrgyzstan the law on privatization and entrepreneurship was adopted. With reforms the production of industrial products increased by 17.5%. Also new hydroelectric power stations were started to build. The profitability of enterprises increased. However, in 1990 the progress of Industrial development sharply decreased and Kyrgyz industry fell into depression. The main reason to this was USSRs single economic enterprise, when one parts were produced in one country and other parts in second country and so on with the beginning of collapse of USSR the crisis of industrial production increased even faster.

 

 


Date: 2015-01-02; view: 1348


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