Thå conclusion at the end îf óîur essay sårvås à numbår of functions:
- It is thå finàl ðàrt îf óîur text and so needs to ðull together all the màin ideas.
- It should råfår back tî what you outlined in óîur introduction and to óîur thesis statement.
- It is àn opportunity to show thå extent to which óîu hàvå been to deal with thå
issues involved in óîur thesis statement.
Just like intrîdöñtiîns, conclusions ñàn hàvå à numbår of features:
1. à logical conclusion that is evident frîm thå development of the ideas in óîur essay, as well as à briåf summàró of the main ideas in the essay
2. comments îï these ideas
3. pãedictions fîr futurå developments in the topic àråà îr statement of furthår råsåàrñh thàt might bå råquiãåd
4. à statement of thå limitations îf thå wîrk ñîvåråd bó óîur essay
5. à råfårånñå back to thå thesis statement first mentioned in the intrîduñtiîn
13. What makes a good summary?
Reporting verbs are widely used in academic writing, and can make a considerable contribution in demonstrating your stance and your analytical skills. You can choose to use some information from a text, and show clearly what you think about it from your choice of reporting verb.
Reporting verbs are also an important element of academic style, as you will be using them throughout your word, whether in summarizing, paraphrasing, or synthesizing ideas and in developing an argument. You have done some work on these in Unit 4, but will need to continue to develop your range of reporting verbs throughout your academic career. This stage will introduce you to more of the most common reporting verbs + that and show how you can use them to communicate your opinion about the sources more accurately.
14. The process of paraphrasing
Paraphrasing is writing the ideas of another person in your own words. You need to change the words and the structure but keep the meaning the same. Remember that even when you paraphrase someone’s work, you must acknowledge it.
The process of paraphrasing involves the following stages:
1. Read and understand the text.
2. Make a list of the main ideas.
a. Find the important ideas – the important words/phrases. In some way mark them - write them down, underline or highlight them.
b. Find alternative words/synonyms for these words/phrases – do not change specialized vocabulary and common words.
3. Change the structure of the text.
a. Identify the meaning relationships between the words/ideas – e.g. cause/effect, generalization, contrast. Express these relationships in different way.
b. Change the grammar of the text: change nouns to verbs, adjectives to adverbs, etc., break up long sentences, combine short sentences.
4. Rewrite the main ideas in complete sentences. Combine your notes into a piece of continuous writing.
5. Check your work.
a. Make sure the meaning is the same.
b. Try to be concise and keep a similar length (not easy!)
c. Make sure the style is your own.
d. Remember to acknowledge other people’s work.
Steps to paraphrasing:
· Ensure you understand the text
· Underline or highlight the key points
· Use synonyms(similar vocabulary) for the main content words
· Change the structure ofthe sentence i.e. grammar and word order (active-passive; adjectives to adverbs), rewriting in your own words
15. Strategies and techniques of presenting your project
General skills: Strategy and Techniques
1. Think: What’s my subject?
2. Why am I giving this presentation? What’s my purpose?
3.Who is my audience? Find out as much as you can about them: for example, how many people will attend, what they do, who they represent and why they’re interested in the subject.
Outline and organization: Strategy and Techniques
Presentation Skills: Language Worksheet
Communication experts are agreed that the first three minutes of a presentation are the most important. They talk about ‘hooks’ – simple techniques for getting the immediate attention of the audience. A good start makes you feel more confident.
· Suppose ……… How would you ……
· Have you ever wondered why it is that …….. ?
· How many people here this morning/afternoon/ evening ….. well, imagine … Do you think that’s possible?