The Timurids in the History of Central Asia and Kyrgyzstan in the 14-16th centuries and their Conquest of Mogholistan.
Amir Timur (Timur, Tamerlane) was born in 1336, Kesh city, originated from Barlas tribe. Tamerlane was the founder of Timurids dynasty. “Amir”denominated his title as a “prince”, also he was called “Gurgan” – son-in-law. His wife was a Ghengizid princess, and with this marriage Tamerlane claimed his right for ruling. At that time, no rulers were considered “lawful”, unless they somehow belonged to a Genghisid dynasty. Amir Timur is remembered as a vicious conqueror, who razed ancient cities to the ground and put entire populations to the sword. Timur’s conquests occupied a vast territory from the Caspian Sea to Northern India. His major conquests included Mawerannahr in 1370, Golden Horde in 1395, Delhi in 1398, and the Ottoman Empire in 1402. He also had ambitious plans to conquer China, however, his last campaign ended with his death in 1405. At the same time, during his life, Amir Timur was one of the few able to unite and control powerful centralized state. Samarkand became political and administrative center of new state, which was famous as “State of Tamerlane”. Timur had cared about prosperity of his native town Transoxiana and improvement of his capital – Samarkand. From all of his conquered lands he drove the best masters, architects, jewelers, builders, architects to equip Samarkand. He was the prominent military leader, the founder of the major power. Under his ruling, Central Asia entered its renaissance period.
He had 4 sons, most well-known was Shahrukh. Timurid dynasty successors, as well as Timur himself, were great patrons of the arts, literature, and architecture. Many significant achievements were made by Shahrukh - a son of Timur, Khorasan (capital – Herat), Ulugh Bek - a grandson (Mawarannahr), a prominent scholar and astronomer (built madrasas, mosques, and his famous observatory), Baysunur - a grandson, Khorasan, a patron of arts (under him Persian and Turkic poetry developed), Babur (author of “encyclopedic” diary Baburname) – last of Timurids, Fergana, the founder of the Great Moghul Empire in India (1526). The rule of Timur and his followers – Shahruh, Ulug bek, and Babur was marked by increase of productive capacities; development of irrigation section, art, handicraft, trade; blossoming of literature and science in ancient Samarkand and Transoxania.
Timurids were also very religious people. They actively professed Islam. One of the descendants of the Timurid dynasty Baha al-Din Naqshband, who was born in Bukhara in 1318, Persian in origin, founded Naqshbandi Sufi Order. He institutionalized Sufism, mostly the success of spreading Sufism was due to its principles. Sufi can live the life of an ordinary person and perform a silent prayer - zikr, individually. It became the most popular Sufi order in Central Asia.
tiimurid period was glorious for the whole Central Asia. The contribution of Timurids to CA’s development was incredible. Timur’s successors were less interested in conquests but rather encouraged the development of art and science.
As a result of Tamerlan’s invasions to Mogolistan state the mogol tribes like: “Bulgachi”, “Duglat”, “Kangyly” and others lost their economic power for continuing of conquered campaigns against Maverannakhr. Most of Mogol tribes migrated to Altai.
Kyrgyz tribe nomadized in the eastern part of Mogolistan state, Altai and Jungaria gradually migrated to Issyk-Kul Lake and Central Tian-Shan and in 1480s in the present northern Kyrgyzstan organized a new tribal union called Kyrgyz. Akhmed was a kagan of Kyrgyz union. He tried to stop invasion of Kalmak tribes as well as rebutted aggression of Uzbek khan Sheibani.
In the end of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th century there was a decay of the state of Tamerlane in Middle Asia and Mogolistan in Semirech’e and Tien-Shan.
In 1512 the state headed by Babur was collapsed by nomadic Uzbek tribes. Zakhir ad-din Mukhammed Babur (1483-1530) was a descendant of Timur in the fifth generation. He received Ferghana when he was twelve. He was a poet, philosopher, and warrior. He wrote his Babur-name and described events held in Central Asia during 1493-1529.
In 1510 he moved to Western India and there organized an empire of Great Mogols (1526-1858).
Kyrgyz tribes in Semirech’e and Tien-Shan were a part of Mogolistan state. In the beginning of the 16 century in Mogolistan there was fighting between chiefs of different mogol and Turkic tribes. Among them stood Kyrgyz tribes, who tried to reach independent condition from Mongol kings. Their movement was headed by Mukhammed-Kyrgyz also called Tagai-bii. He had united the right and left Kyrgyz tribes. Consolidation of Kyrgyz tribes caused the development of ethic identity of the Kyrgyz people in that time. His General Headquarters located in Barskoon, South shore of the Issyk-Kul Lake. Mukhammed-Kyrgyz came to agreement with Kazakh sultans against Uzbek and Mogol invasions. But at the same time The Kyrgyz troops took part in campaigns of Mogol and Kazakh army against each other and Uzbek tribes.