Contributions of Other Disciplines to Foreign Language Education
Approaches to Learning and Motivation in Foreign Language Education
Behavioral Views on Learning
Cognitive Views on Learning
Constructivist Views on Learning
Approaches to Foreign Language Teaching
SECTION II- Analyzing Methods of FLT
Approach, (theories of language, theories of language learning)
Design, (objectives, content choice-the syllabus, types of learning-teaching activities,
learner roles, teacher roles, role of instructional materials,)
Procedure (classroom techniques, practices and behaviors observed when the method is
used such as the interaction type and feedback)
An Overview of Language Learning Theories and Methods
The Silent Way (C. Gattegno)
Community Language Learning (Charles Curran)
Total Physical Response (TPR) (J. Asher)
The Natural Approach (Krashen & Terrell)
SECTION III- Communication in Foreign Language
Communicative Approach (Communicative Language Teaching)
Content based Instruction
Culture in Foreign Language Teaching
This book of lecture notes for the ELT methodology course is designed to address the needs and concerns of pre-service teachers who are university students preparing to teach English as a foreign language in the schools and specialized linguistic gymnasiums at secondary level of education and inservice teachers who need a methods course to update their knowledge of second-language acquisition and instruction for personal growth or towards an academic credit for certification.
The course focuses on a number of concepts central to the methodology of teaching English as a foreign language. Students learn about current theoretical bases for second-language acquisition and how theory informs classroom practice. The course does not promote a particular methodology but rather presents principles of learning from which teachers can draw as they make decisions about instruction. In today's classrooms with diverse learners and curricular options, teachers must possess a repertoire of teaching practices relying on an evolving research and knowledge base.
1. To develop an understanding of the theoretical principles and concepts in the underlying methods and techniques utilized in ELT.
2. To develop the practical skills necessary for analyzing and evaluating methods and techniques of foreign language teaching in the EFL classroom.
3. To increase participants' awareness of the different language learning strategies to achieve intercultural communicative competence as the primary goal for foreign language instruction.
4. To develop a working knowledge of the principles of modern language assessment with more focus on designing tests which assess reading, writing, vocabulary, and grammar.
5. To develop the participants awareness of the applications of recent information and communication technologies in ELT
INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES
On completion of this course, successful participants will be able to:
· demonstrate an understanding of current theories of second-language acquisition research.
· demonstrate the ability to reflect critically on teaching and learning experiences on the course and relate them to the Kazakh educational context by creating lesson segments that reflect theory and practice.
· design performance-based assessments.
· analyze existing tests and construct appropriate language ones;
· understand the relationship between methodological approaches to the teaching of a foreign language and the use of technology;
· manage the use of all sorts of resources and technology as a tool for professional development and to promote student learning.
· design unit and daily lesson plans in alignment with the standards for language learning.
· develop the ability to reflect on their teaching, student learning and to make changes as warranted.
1. 1. Basic concepts of ELT methodology:
“approach, method, technique”
In attempting to define what ‘method’ is, we can consider Edward Anthony’s tripartite distinction of Approach, Method and Technique (Anthony: 1963).
Edward Anthony’s definition of the terms ‘approach, method and technique’ has a hierarchical relation with each other. The word "approach" refers to ‘theoretical positions and beliefs about the nature of language, the nature of language learning, and the applicability of both to pedagogical settings.’ (Brown, 1994:51) In this sense, it refers to the theoretical principles that guide all components of teaching (teacher, learner, language and culture) in a certain foreign language teaching situation.
Anthony further defines the term “method” as ‘a generalized set of classroom specifications for accomplishing linguistic objectives’. Methods are especially about the teacher and student roles, learning objectives, the sequence and presentation of materials. A ‘method’ is used to explain different ways according to a certain theory of teaching and learning in all language learning contexts.
A “technique” is ‘any of a wide variety of exercises, activities, or devices used in the language classroom for realizing lesson objectives’. (Anthony: 1963).
Richards and Rodgers (1982, 1985) further developed this distinction as Approach, Design and Procedure, which encompasses within the overall concept of Method, “an umbrella term for the specification and interrelation of theory and practice” (Richards & Rodgers 1985: 16)