The subject matter of the text – 1 sentence (e. g. family relation, snobbery)
The type of narration (e.g. description, character drawing, account of events, dialogue, interior monologue).
The language peculiarities of the text: lexical, grammatical peculiarities, expressive means and stylistic devices; general characteristics (language is simple – elaborate, plain – metaphorical).
The message of the text (the main idea) (1-2 sentences).
Summary of the text (4-5 sentences).
2. Linguistic Analysis of the Text
(to be used for the analysis of all kinds of texts:
texts from Arakin, additional texts, texts that are chosen for group and individual home reading)
1. The subject matter of the text. What is the story about? Give its subject in one word or in short phrase, e.g. family relation, snobbery.
2. Setting of events. Where does the story take place and when? Does the setting matter to the story or could it taken place equally well in some other place and at some other time? Has the narrator emphasised certain details? Which? Why? What functions does the setting have?
3. Composition of the text. What is the exposition, complication, climax and denouement? Are the elements of the plot ordered chronologically? Is the action fast or slow moving? Which episodes have been given the greatest emphasis? Is the plot (the sequence of events) of major or minor importance?
4. The type of narration(e.g. description, character drawing, account of events, dialogue, interior monologue).
5. Characters.Main and minor characters, the protagonist and antagonist. Who are the characters? What are they like: in appearance, in habits of speech and behaviour. What are their names? Does it have any significance? What method does the author use to describe the characters (direct or explicit – indirect or implicit)? Does he use direct characterization amply or sparingly? Personal features of the characters. How do their actions and doings characterize them? The speech of characters (as a means to reveal reveals the character’s individual experience, his/ her culture and psychology, social position, profession and so on). In the course of the story do the characters change as a result of their experience? What is the relationship between the characters and how is this relationship pointed out? What contrasts and parallels are there in the behaviour of the characters? Are the characters credible? Do they act consistently? If not, why?
6. The narrator. What tells the story? Is it told by one of the characters, by a narrator outside the story, or by whom? Is it a third-person narrative with the omnipresent author who moves in and out of peoples thoughts and comment freely on what characters think, say and do? If the story is told by one of the characters, does it help to make it more effective? Describe the participation of the narrator in the events.
7. Mood and tone. In what key is the text written? How is the mood achieved? Does it change general slant of the text? Is it lyrical, melancholy, satirical, humorous, pathetic, unemotional? How can you prove it? Is the general tone matter-of-fact, sentimental, moralizing, bitter, ironical, sarcastic? What attitude to life does the story express?
8. The language peculiarities of the text. What sort of language is used? Is it simple or elaborate, plain or metaphorical? Lexical and grammatical peculiarities. Expressive means and stylistic devices: their role in the text (what is the author’s aim to use them? E.g. The author sympathizes with the main characters. We feel it because he uses such epithets as …). Is the author successful in the portrait of his subject and in conveying his feelings? Does he succeed in portraying the characters? Are the images created in the text genuine, poetic, fresh, trite, hackneyed, stale? Are there any symbols in the text?
9. The message of the text. What is the author’s point of view on the problems raised in the story? What does the author proclaim in his story? Is the end of the text clear-cut and conclusive or does it leave room for suggestion? Can there be alternative interpretations of the text?
10. The title of the text. Try to explain the title of the text. Is it metaphorical or symbolic?
11. Summary of the text(4-5 sentences).
12. Your opinion of the story. Confirm it by the text.