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The Bolshoi Theatre


Moscow is the capital of Russia. It was not always the capital. In ancient times the capitals of Russ were also Kiev and Novgorod. After Peter the Great built Saint-Petersberg it was the Russian capital. And in the XX century during the Civil war first Soviet government moved to Moscow. Moscow is one of the biggest and most beautiful cities of the world. It is as well a great cultural and political centre of Europe. Moscow was founded in 1147 by Yuri Dolgoruky. The total area of the city is more than nine hundred square kilomtres. They call Moscow a port of five seas, as in Moscow ports you can see boats coming from the Baltic, the White, the Caspian and the Black seas and the sea of Azov. Moscow is an industrial centre too. A lot of manufacturing plants are situated there. One of the best known is Likhachev Automobile Plant producing a great number of different lorries and cars. Cultural life is very busy in Moscow. There are a lot of theatres, museums, cinemas and libraries in Moscow. Tretyakov Art Gallery and Pushkin Fine Arts Museum are most famous among them. The Pushkin museum is called the treasure-house of Russian art. There are a lot of splendid buildings, wide avenues, large squares, famous monuments and green forest-like parks in Moscow. One of the highest and original buildings in Moscow is Moscow State University. The university was founded in 1755 by the great chemist, poet and thinker Mikhail Lomonosov. Moscow transport system is a great one. You can see a lot of cars, buses, trolley-buses and trams in the streets of the city. Electric trains bring millions people from and to suburbs and Moscow region small towns. There are nine railway stations in Moscow and four airports. Most of the people take metro to their work and back home. The Moscow metro began its work on the 15th of May 1935. There were 13 stations at that time. Now they are 152. Our metro is beautiful and convenient.



The Moscow Kremlin is a magnificent architectural ensemble. It's like an entire city within Moscow. Russian princes and tsars lived here long time ago. Today it is the official residence of the President of Russia. Moscow Kremlin is the symbol of the Russian state.

Kremlin is the Russian word for "fortress", "citadel". In fact, some other old Russian cities have their own Kremlin as well. But the Kremlin of Moscow is the one known around the world.

Kremlin remembers the first residents of Moscow. The founder of Moscow prince Yury Dolgoruky ordered the construction of the first wooden fortress here in 1156. At that time the site was known as the town of Moscow. The word "kremlin" was first recorded in the 14th century. The Kremlin we see today was built in the late 15th century. Moscow prince Ivan the Great dreamed of building a capital which would equal to Constantinople in grandeur and importance. He called his dream the "Third Rome" and brought architects from Italy. Most of their work is still standing.
The highlights include the Cathedral square, Ivan the Great Bell tower, the tsar-cannon, the tsar-bell. You can visit three cathedrals which were built in the 15th-16th centuries. The Assumption cathedral (1479) was the main church of Moscow, all the Tsars were crowned here. The gilded Cathedral of the Annunciation was a domestic royal church; it has preserved several unique icons by Andrey Rublev. Cathedral of the Archangel Michael keeps the graves of the first Russian princes and tsars.


Tverskaya street

Tverskay is the thoroughfare of Moscow. It bears the name of the ancient town "Tver" to which this road led. When St. Petersburg was founded this road started linking two major cities of Russia. It was called the tsar's road as all Russian monarchs were driving along Tverskaya street to the ceremony of coronation which took place in the Assumption cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin.Towards the end of the 19th century, the street was reconstructed. The eclectic edifice of National Hotel with interior in Russian Art Nouveau style was built at the beginning of the street. Another landmark became Elyseevsky grocery store which still strikes everyone with its unique interior décor and an abundance of delicacies.

In Soviet era Tverskaya street was named after Maxim Gorky, a favorite writer of Soviet people and the Soviet government. Evidently that's why the street was renamed while Maxim Gorky was still alive. It was sort of a gesture of appreciation of Gorky's support for Stalin's totalitarian regime. The street was also widened and turned into avenue. The reconstruction buried the reminders of the époque of "tsarism" together with valuable old houses .The most precious ones from Soviet viewpoint were, though, preserved.

Tverskay street is like the 5th Avenue in New York or Oxford street in London. It is the main shopping street full of upscale boutiques and famous retailer's trends. In this area one can always find numerous cafes and restaurants which vary from Mc Donald's to fancy restaurant Pushkin.

The Bolshoi Theatre

The Bolshoi Theatre is one of the oldest and biggest theatres in Russia. It is also one of the most renowned opera and ballet theatres in the world. People sometimes call it shortly "The Bolshoi" and it is situated in the central part of Moscow. Originally it was an Imperial theatre. The architect who designed the building of The Bolshoi was Joseph Bove. It was built between 1821 and 1824. Since then, the building was renovated and rebuilt several times. However, it kept its original imperial decorations. Today, it’s not simply the building of the theatre but it is also an outstanding landmark of Moscow. The neoclassical view of The Bolshoi can be seen on the Russian 100-ruble banknote. It has been the site for many notable premiers. Among them, Rachmaninoff’s “Aleko”, Mussorgsky’s “Boris Godunov”, Tchaikovsky’s “The Voyevoda” and “Mazeppa”. Ballet repertoire includes Tchaikovsky’s “Swan Lake”, Prokofiev’s “Romeo and Juliet”, Adam’s “Giselle” and several others. Many productions are based on classical works of Russian composers. However, the works of such Italian composers as Verdi, Rossini and Puccini are also staged. The Bolshoi Theatre is well-known throughout the world. It is frequently visited by tourists and guests of Moscow. There is another interesting theatre, which is also beloved by visitors. It is The Bolshoi’s sibling – The Maly Theatre. It is situated next to The Bolshoi Theatre but specializes in dramas.

Sparrow Hills

Sparrow Hills is a hill on the right bank of the Moskva River and one of highest points in Moscow. On top of the hill, 85 m above the river is the observation platform, which gives a beautiful panoramic view of the city.

Sparrow hills were immortalized by many Russian poets and writers. In old times travelers used to climb on top of the hill to enjoy the view and to see the final point of their destination – Moscow. The name 'Sparrow' – in Russian 'Vorobyovy' was originally the name of the village which was located nearby.

Standing on the platform you can see almost all central Moscow – The Luzhniki Stadium (where 1980 Olympics took place), the domes of Novodevichy convent, the Kremlin churches, Christ the Savior cathedral, Stalin's high-rise buildings.
Sparrow Hills attracted not only the visitors of Moscow but also Russian architects. The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour was originally planned to be built here. It never happened but later, in the 20th century, another temple was put up on Sparrow Hills. It was the temple of knowledge -the famous Moscow State University. It looks spectacular on top of the hill. Thanks to its location the University is seen from afar.

Poklonnaya Gora

Poklonnaya Gora (Russian: Ïîêëî́ííàÿ ãîðà́, literally "bow-down hill"; metaphorically "Worshipful Submission Hill"') is, at 171.5 metres, one of the highest spots in Moscow. Its two summits used to be separated by the Setun River, until one of the summits was razed in 1987. Since 1936, the area has been part of Moscow and now contains the Victory Park with many tanks and other vehicles used in the Second World War on display.

Historically, the hill had great strategic importance, as it commanded the best view of the Russian capital. Its name is derived from the Russian for "to bow down", as everyone approaching the capital from the west was expected to do homage here. In 1812, it was the spot where Napoleon in vain expected the keys to the Kremlin to be brought to him by Russians.

Victory Park

In the 1960s, the Soviet authorities decided to put the area to use as an open-air museum dedicated to the Russian victory over Napoleon. The New Triumphal Arch, erected in wood in 1814 and in marble in 1827 to a design by Osip Bove, was relocated and reconstructed here in 1968. A loghouse, where Kutuzov presided over the Fili conference which decided to abandon Moscow to the enemy, was designated a national monument. The huge panorama "Battle of Borodino" by Franz Roubaud (1910–12) was installed here in 1962. A monument to Kutuzov was opened in 1973.

The Victory Park and the Square of Victors are important parts of the outdoor museum. In the 1990s an obelisk was added with a statue of Nike and a monument of St George slaying the dragon, both designed by Zurab Tsereteli. The obelisk's height is exactly 141,8 meters, which is 10 cm for every day of the War. A golden-domed Orthodox church was erected on the hilltop in 1993-95, followed by a memorial mosque and the Holocaust Memorial Synagogue.

On the 9th May 1995 the first post-Soviet victory parade was held here, with President of the Russian Federation Boris Yeltsin and Minister of Defence and General of the Army Pavel Grachev in attendance. Commanding the parade was commander of the Moscow Military District Colonel-General Leonid Kuznetsov. This parade was also the first major display of the new post-Soviet army uniforms.

At the 60th V-day celebrations in 2005, President Vladimir Putin inaugurated 15 extravagant bronze columns, symbolizing main fronts and navies of the Red Army during the World War II.


Date: 2016-01-03; view: 1225

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