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What it is

  • Brown (1989) explains that intensive reading "calls attention to grammatical forms, discourse markers, and other surface structure details for the purpose of understanding literal meaning, implications, rhetorical relationships, and the like." He draws an analogy to intensive reading as a "zoom lens" strategy .
  • Long and Richards (1987) say it is a "detailed in-class" analysis, led by the teacher, of vocabulary and grammar points, in a short passage."
  • Intensive Reading, sometimes called "Narrow Reading", may involve students reading selections by the same author or several texts about the same topic. When this occurs, content and grammatical structures repeat themselves and students get many opportunities to understand the meanings of the text. The success of "Narrow Reading" on improving reading comprehension is based on the premise that the more familiar the reader is with the text, either due to the subject matter or having read other works by the same author, the more comprehension is promoted.

How it looks


  • usually classroom based
  • reader is intensely involved in looking inside the text
  • students focus on linguistic or semantic details of a reading
  • students focus on surface structure details such as grammar and discourse markers
  • students identify key vocabulary
  • students may draw pictures to aid them (such as in problem solving)
  • texts are read carefully and thoroughly, again and again
  • aim is to build more language knowledge rather than simply practice the skill of reading
  • seen more commonly than extensive reading in classrooms


  • usually very short texts - not more than 500 words in length
  • chosen for level of difficulty and usually, by the teacher
  • chosen to provide the types of reading and skills that the teacher wants to cover in the course

Skills developed:

  • rapid reading practice
  • interpreting text by using:

-word attack skills

-text attack skills
-non-text information


Intensive reading exercises may include:

  • looking at main ideas versus details
  • understanding what is implied versus stated
  • making inferences
  • looking at the order of information and how it effects the message
  • identifying words that connect one idea to another
  • identifying words that indicate change from one section to another

Munby (1979) suggests four categories of questions that may be used in intensive reading. These include:

1. Plain Sense - to understand the factual, exact surface meanings in the text

2. Implications - to make inferences and become sensitive to emotional tone and figurative language

3. Relationships of thought - between sentences or paragraphs

4. Projective - requiring the integration of information from the text to one's own background information

Note that questions may fall into more than one category.


Assessment of intensive reading will take the form of reading tests and quizzes.
The most common systems of questioning are multiple-choice and free-response.
Mackay (1968) , in his book Reading in a Second Language, reminds teachers that the most important objective in the reading class should NOT be the testing of the student to see if they have understood. Teachers should, instead, be spending most of the time training the student to understand what they read.

When it is used

  • when the objective of reading is to achieve full understanding of:

- logical argument
- rhetorical pattern of text
- emotional, symbolic or social attitudes and purposes of the author
- linguistic means to an end

  • for study of content material that are difficult

Role of the teacher

  • The teacher chooses suitable text.
  • The teacher chooses tasks and activities to develop skills.
  • The teacher gives direction before, during and after reading.
  • The teacher prepares students to work on their own. Often the most difficult part is for the teacher to "get out of the way" .
  • The teacher encourages students through prompts, without giving answers.


  • It provides a base to study structure, vocabulary and idioms.
  • It provides a base for students to develop a greater control of language
  • It provides for a check on the degree of comprehension for individual students


  • There is little actual practice of reading because of the small amount of text.
  • In a class with multi-reading abilities, students may not be able to read at their own level because everyone in the class is reading the same material.
  • The text may or may not interest the reader because it was chosen by the teacher.
  • There is little chance to learn language patterns due to the small amount of text.
  • Because exercises and assessment usually follow intensive reading, students may come to associate reading with testing and not pleasure.

22.Teaching listening at school. Reasons for listening:

ü Learners want to be able to understand what people are saying to them;

ü Listening is good for SS’ pronunciation;


What kind of listening to teach?


Extensive listening - listening for pleasure or some other reason outside the classroom;

Intensive listening - listening specifically in the classroom or laboratories.


Listening sources:

1. recorded extracts

2. live listening

What listening skills should students acquire?

ü for more general understanding (the main idea of the story, message of the conversation);

ü for specific information (time, numbers, addresses).

Listening principles:

Principle1:Encourage students to listen as often and as much as possible;

Principle 2: Help students to prepare to listen;

Principle 3: Once may not be enough;

Principle 4:Encourage students to respond to the content of a listening and express their feelings about it, not just to the language;

Principle 5: Different listening stages demand different listening tasks;

Principle 6: Good teachers use listening texts to the full.


Stages in teaching listening:

There are 3 main stages in teaching reading:

I. Pre-listening stage

II. Listening stage:

1. First listening (for the gist or main idea);

2. Second listening (for details)

3. Third listening (to complete information they might have missed and check their answers).

III. After listening stage or Follow Up.


Pre-listening stage activities:


ü Write the title of the listening text on the board. Have the students make predictions about the text based upon the title.

ü Show a picture from the text. Have the students make predictions based upon the picture.

ü Present vocabulary and then have students make predictions about the content of the listening text based on the vocabulary .


Listening stage:

I. Main idea activities:

ü Listen to the text quickly to find out if their prediction was correct.

ü Show several photos. Have Ss listen to the text and decide which of these pictures is/are appropriate for the text.

ü Listen to the text and match photos/titles to appropriate paragraphs in the text.

ü Listen to the text and sequence pictures according to the sequence in the text.

ü Listen to answer one or two general questions, T/F statements etc. about the content of the text (not too specific at this point).

ü Listen in order to answer questions Ss formulated before knowing the exact content of the text.

II. Detailed listening activities – more intensive comprehensive understanding:

ü True/false questions

ü Multiple choice questions

ü Matching questions to answers

ü Filling in a chart

ü Putting items in order (words, phrases, sentences, pictures)

ü Filling in blanks

ü Gap filling

ü Answering questions (more detailed than in Main idea part, the so called Why-questions)

ü Categorizing (e.g. Advantages / Disadvantages)

ü Jigsaw listening.

After listening stage or Follow Up.

Follow Up Activities:

ü Role-play

ü Discussion on the theme of the text

ü Writing task (e.g. write a letter, )

ü Display the information in another form

ü Select a function from the text and practice it (e.g. suggestions, making plans using the language in the text)

ü Practice grammar points.


23.Teachers’ skills, attitude and knowledge that teachers need to acquire.

2. Teachers’ skills and attitude

Attitudes Skills

Adaptability Managing classes

Recognising students Matching tasks and groups

Listening to students Variety

Respecting students


3. The knowledge that teachers need to acquire.

1. Knowing the subject i.e. the language system

2. Material and resources

3. Managing with classroom equipment

4. Keeping up-to-date




Name: ____________________

This guide is to help you decide which units you need to study. The sentences in the guide are grouped together (Present and past, Articles and nouns etc.) in the same way as the units in the Contents (page iii).

Each sentence can be completed using one or more of the alternatives (A, B, C etc.). There are between two and five alternatives each time. IN SOME SENTENCES MORE THAN ONE ALTERNATIVE IS POSSIBLE.

If you don't know or if you are not sure which alternatives are correct, then you probably need to study the unit(s) listed on the right. You will also find the correct sentence in this unit. (If two or three units are listed, you will find the correct sentence in the first one.).


    1. Present and past   IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH IS RIGHT
1.1 '____ this week?' 'No, she's on holiday.' A. is Susan working B. Does Susan work C. Does work Susan (Unit 1, 3)
1.2 I don't understand this sentence. What ____? A. does mean this word B. does this word mean C. means this word (Unit 4, 48)
1.3 John ____ tennis once or twice a week. A. is playing usually B. is usually playing C. usually plays D. plays usually (Unit 2, 3, 109)
1.4 How ____ now? Better than before? A. you are feeling B. do you feel C. are you feeling (Unit 4)
1.5 It was a boring weekend ____ anything. A. I didn't B. I don't do C. I didn't do (Unit 5)
1.6 Tom ____ his hand when he was cooking the dinner. A. burnt B. was burning C. has burnt (Unit 6, 14)



  2. Present perfect and past   IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH IS RIGHT
2.1 Jim is away on holiday. He _________ to Spain. A. is gone B. has gone C. has been (Unit 7)
2.2 Everything is going well. We _________any problems so far. A. didn't have B. don't have C. haven't had (Unit 8)
2.3 Linda has lost her passport again. It's the second time this _________. A. has happened B. happens C. happened (Unit 8, 13)
2.4 You're out of breath _________? A. Are you running B. Have you run C. Have you been running (Unit 9)
2.5 Where's the book I gave you? What _________ with it? A. have you done B. have you been doing C. are you doing (Unit 10)
2.6 We're good friends. We _________ each other for a long time. A. know B. have known C. have been knowing D. knew (Unit 11, 10)
2.7 Sally has been working here _________. A. for six months B. since six months C. six months ago (Unit 12)
2.8. It's two years _________ Joe. A. that I don't see B. that I haven't seen C. since I didn't see D. since I saw (Unit 12)
2.9. They _________ out after lunch and they've just come back. A. went B. have gone C. are gone (Unit 13, 14, 7)
2.10. The Chinese _________ printing. A. invented B. have invented C. had invented (Unit 13, 15)
2.11. Ian _________ in Scotland for ten years. Now he lives in London. A. lived B. has lived C. has been living (Unit 14, 11)
2.12. The man sitting next to me on the plane was nervous because he before _________. A. hasn't flown B. didn't fly C. hadn't flown D. wasn't flying (Unit 15)
2.13. _________ a car when they were living in London? A. Had they B. Did they have C. Were they having D. Have they had (Unit 17)
2.14. I _________ television a lot but I don't any more. A. was watching B. was used to watch C. used to watch (Unit 18)


3.1. _________ tomorrow, so we can go out somewhere. A. I'm not working B. I don't work C. I won't work (Unit 19, 21)
3.2. That bag looks heavy _________ you with it. A. I'm helping B. I help C. I'll help (Unit 21)
3.3. I think the weather _________ be nice later. A. will B. shall C. is going to (Unit 23, 22)
3.4. 'Ann is in hospital.' 'Yes, I know _________ her tomorrow.' A. I visit B. I'm going to visit C. I'll visit (Unit 23, 20)
3.5. We're late. The film _________ by the time we get to the cinema. A. will already start B. will be already started C. will already have started (Unit 24)
3.6. Don't worry _________ late tonight. A. if I am B. when I am C. when I'll be D. if I'll be (Unit 25)


4.1. The fire spread through the building quickly but everybody _________. A. was able to escape B. managed to escape C. could escape (Unit 26)
4.2. The phone is ringing. It _________ be Tim. A. might B. can C. could (Unit 27, 29)
4.3. Why did you stay at a hotel when you went to New York? You _________ with Barbara. A. can stay B. could stay C. could have stayed (Unit 27)
4.4. I've lost one of my gloves. I _________ it somewhere. A. must drop B. must have dropped C. must be dropping D. must have been dropping (Unit 28)
4.5. Take an umbrella with you when you go out. It _________ rain later. A. may B. might C. can D. could (Unit 30)
4.6. What was wrong with you? Why _________ go to hospital? A. had you to B. did you have to C. must you (Unit 31)
4.7. There's plenty of time. You _________ hurry. A. don't have to B. mustn't C. needn't (Unit 31, 32)
4.8. It was a great party last night. You _________ come. Why didn't you? A. must have B. should have C. ought to have D. had to (Unit 33)
4.9. Jane _________ a car. A. suggested that I buy B. suggested that I should buy C. suggested me to buy (Unit 34)
4.10. I think all drivers _________ seat belts. A. should wear B. had better wear C. had better to wear (Unit 35)
4.11. It's late. It's time _________ home. A. we go B. we must go C. we should go D. we went (Unit 35)


5. Conditionals and 'wish'   IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH IS RIGHT
5.1. I'm not tired enough to go to bed yet. I wouldn't sleep if I _________ to bed now. A. go B. went C. had gone D. would go (Unit 37)
5.2. If I were you, I _________ that coat. It's much too expensive. A. won't buy B. don't buy C. am not going to buy D. wouldn't buy (Unit 38)
5.3. I decided to stay at home last night. I would have gone out if I _________ so tired. A. wasn't B. weren't C. wouldn't have been D. hadn't been (Unit 39)
5.4. I wish I _________ a car. It would make life so much easier. A. have B. had C. would have (Unit 40, 38)


6.1. We _________ by a loud noise during the night. A. woke up B. are woken up C. were woken up D. were waking up (Unit 41)
6.2. There's somebody walking behind us. I think _________ . A. we are following B. we are being followed C. we are followed D. we are being following (Unit 42)
6.3. 'Where _________ 'In London.' A. were you born B. are you born C. have you been born D. did you born (Unit 43)
6.4. The train _________ arrive at 11.30 but it was an hour late. A. supposed to B. is supposed to C. was supposed to (Unit 44)
6.5. Where _________? Which hairdresser did you go to? A. did you cut your hair B. have you cut your hair C. did you have cut your hair D. did you have your hair cut (Unit 45)


7. Reported speech     IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH IS RIGHT
7.1. Hello, Jim. I didn't expect to see you today. Sonia said you __________ ill. A. are B. were C. was D. should be (Unit 47, 48)
7.2. Ann __________ and left. A. said goodbye to me B. said me goodbye C. told me goodbye (Unit 47)


  8. Questions and auxiliary verbs   IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH IS RIGHT
8.1. 'How __________ ?' 'Nobody knows.' A. happened the accident B. did happen the accident C. did the accident happen (Unit 48)
8.2. 'Do you know where __________. 'No, he didn't say.' A. Tom has gone B. has Tom gone C. has gone Tom (Unit 49)
8.3. The police officer stopped us and asked us where __________. A. were we going B. are we going C. we are going D. we were going (Unit 49)
8.4. 'Do you think- it's going to rain? '__________.' A. I hope not B. I don't hope C. I don't hope so (Unit 50)
8.5. 'You don't know where Karen is __________ 'Sorry, I've no idea.' A. don't you B. do you C. is she (Unit 51)


  9. ~ing and the infinitive   IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH IS RIGHT
9.1. You can't stop me __________ what I want. A. doing B. do C. to do D. that I do (Unit 52)
9.2. I must go now. I promised __________ late. A. not being B. not to be C. to not be D. I wouldn't be (Unit 53, 40)
9.3. Do you want __________ with you or do you want to go alone? A. me coming B. me to come C. that I come D. that I will come (Unit 54)
9.4. I'm sure I locked the door. I clearly remember __________ it. A. locking B. to lock C. to have locked (Unit 55)
9.5. She tried to be serious but she couldn't help __________. A. laughing B. to laugh C. that she laughed (Unit 56)
9.6. I like __________ the kitchen as often as possible. A. cleaning B. clean C. to clean D. that I clean (Unit 57)
9.7. I'm tired. I'd rather __________ out this evening, if you don't mind. A. not going B. not to go C. don't go D. not go (Unit 58)
9.8. 'Shall I stay here?' 'I'd rather __________ with us.' A. you come B. you to come C. you came D. you would come (Unit 58)
9.9. Are you looking forward __________ Ann again? A. seeing B. to see C. to seeing (Unit 59, 61)
9.10. When Jane came to Britain, she had to get used __________ on the left. A. driving B. to driving C. to drive (Unit 60)
9.11. I'm thinking __________ a house. Do you think that's a good idea? A. to buy B. of to buy C. of buying (Unit 61, 65)
9.12. I'm sure you'll have no __________ the exam. A. difficulty to pass B. difficulties to pass C. difficulties passing D. difficulty passing (Unit 62)
9.13. A friend of mine phoned __________ me to a party. A. for invite B. to invite C. for inviting D. for to invite (Unit 63)
9.14. Jim doesn't speak very clearly __________. A. It is difficult to understand him. B. He is difficult to understand. C. He is difficult to understand him. (Unit 64)
9.15. The path was icy, so we walked very carefully. We were afraid __________. A. of falling B. from falling C. to fall (Unit 65)
9.16. I didn't hear you __________ in. You must have been very quiet. A. come B. to come C. came (Unit 66)
9.17. __________ a hotel, we looked for somewhere to have dinner. A. Finding B. After finding C. Having found D. We found (Unit 67)


  10. Articles and nouns     IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH IS RIGHT
10.1. Call an ambulance. There's been __________. A. accident B. an accident. C. some accident (Unit 68)
10.2. 'Where are you going?' 'I'm going to buy __________. A. a bread B. some bread C. a loaf of bread (Unit 69)
10.3. Sandra works at a big hospital. She's __________. A. nurse B. a nurse C. the nurse (Unit 70, 71)
10.4. She works six days __________ week. A. in B. for C. a D. the (Unit 71)
10.5 There are millions of stars in __________. A. space B. a space C. the space (Unit 72)
10.6 Every day __________ begins at 9 and finishes at 3. A. school B. a school C. the school (Unit 73)
10.7 __________ a problem in most big cities. A. Crime is B. The crime is C. The crimes are (Unit 74)
10.8 When __________ invented? A. was telephone B. were telephones C. was the telephone D. were the telephones (Unit 75)
10.9 We visited __________. A. Canada and United States B. the Canada and the United States C. Canada and the United States D. the Canada and United States (Unit 76)
10.10 Julia is a student at __________. A. London University B. the London University C. the University of London (Unit 77)
10.11 What time __________ on television? A. is the news B. are the news C. is news (Unit 78, 69)
10.12 It took us quite a long time to get here. It was __________ journey. A. three hour B. a three-hours C. a three-hour (Unit 79)
10.13 Where is? A. the manager office B. the manager's office C. the office of the manager D. the office of the manager's (Unit 80)


11. Pronouns and determiners   IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH IS RIGHT
11.1 I'm going to a wedding on Saturday __________ is getting married, A. A friend of me B. A friend of mine C. One my friends (Unit 81)
11.2 What time shall we __________ this evening? A. meet B. meet us C. meet ourselves (Unit 82)
11.3 They live on a busy road __________ a lot of noise from the traffic. A. It must be B. There must be C. There must have D. It must have (Unit 83)
11.4 He's lazy. He never does __________ work. A. some B. any C. no (Unit 84)
11.5 'What would you like to eat?' 'I don't mind __________ whatever you've got.' A. Something B. Anything C. Nothing (Unit 84, 85)
11.6 We couldn't buy anything because __________ of the shops were open. A. all B. no one C. none D. nothing (Unit 85)
11.7 When we were on holiday, we spent __________ money. A. a lot of B. much C. too much (Unit 86)
11.8 __________ don't visit this part of the town. A. The most tourists B. Most of tourists C. Most tourists (Unit 87)
11.9 I asked two people the way to the station but __________ of them knew. A. none B. either C. both D. neither (Unit 88)
11.10 It was a great party __________ enjoyed it. A. Everybody B. All C. All of us D. Everybody of us (Unit 89)
11.11 The bus service is very good. There's a bus __________ ten minutes. A. each B. every C. all (Unit 89, 90)


  12. Relative clauses   IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH IS RIGHT
12.1 I don't like stories __________ have unhappy endings. A. that B. they C. which D. who (Unit 91)
12.2 I didn't believe them at first but in fact everything __________ was true. A. they said B. that they said C. what they said (Unit 92)
12.3 What's the name of the man __________? A. you borrowed his car B. which car you borrowed C. whose car you borrowed D. his car you borrowed (Unit 93)
12.4 Colin told me about his new job __________ very much. A. that he's enjoying B. which he's enjoying C. he's enjoying D. he's enjoying it (Unit 94)
12.5 Sheila couldn't come to the party __________ was a pity. A. that B. it C what D. which (Unit 95)
12.6 Some of the people __________ to the party can't come. A. inviting B. invited C. who invited D. they were invited (Unit 96)


  13. Adjectives and adverbs   IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH IS RIGHT
13.1 Jane doesn't enjoy her job. She's __________ because she does the same thing every day. A. boring B. bored (Unit 97)
13.2 The woman was carrying a __________ bag. A. black small plastic B. small and black plastic C. small black plastic D. plastic small black (Unit 98)
13.3 Maria's English is excellent. She speaks __________. A. perfectly English B. English perfectly C. perfect English D. English perfect (Unit 99)
13.4 He __________ to find a job but he had no luck. A. tried hard B. tried hardly C. hardly tried (Unit 100)
13.5 I haven't seen her for __________ I've forgotten what she looks like. A. so long B. a so long time C. a such long time D. such a long time (Unit 101)
13.6 I haven't got __________ on holiday at the moment. A. money enough to go B. enough money to go C. money enough for going D. enough money forgoing (Unit 102)
13.7 Let's get a taxi. It's __________ to walk. A. a quite long way B. quite a long way C. rather a long way (Unit 103)
13.8 The exam was quite easy __________ we expected. A. more easy that B. more easy than C. easier than D. easier as (Unit 104)
13.9 The more electricity you use __________. A. your bill will be higher B. will be higher your bill C. the higher your bill will be (Unit 105)
13.10 He's a fast runner. I can't run as fast as __________. A. he B. him C. he can (Unit 106)
13.11 The film was really boring. It was __________ I've ever seen. A. most boring film B. the more boring film C. the film more boring D. the most boring film (Unit 107)
13.12 Tom likes walking __________. A. Every morning he walks to work. B. He walks to work every morning. C. He walks every morning to work. (Unit 108)
13.13 __________ a long time for the bus. A. Always we have to wait B. We always have to wait C. We have always to wait D. We have to wait always (Unit 109)
13.14 Ann __________ She left last month. A. still doesn't work here B. doesn't still work here C. no more works here D. doesn't work here any more (Unit 110)
13.15 __________ she can't drive, she has bought a car. A. Even B. Even though C. Even if D. Even when (Unit 111, 112)


  14. Conjunctions and prepositions   IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH IS RIGHT
14.1 I couldn't sleep __________ very tired. A. although I was B. despite I was C. despite of being D. in spite of being (Unit 112)
14.2 You should insure your bicycle __________ stolen. A. in case it will be B. if it will be C. in case it is D. if it is (Unit 113)
14.3 The club is for members only. You __________ you're a member. A. can't go in if B. can go in only if C. can't go in unless D. can go in unless (Unit 114)
14.4 Angela has been married a long time. She got married __________ she was 23 years old. A. when B. as (Unit 115)
14.5 What a beautiful house! It's __________ a palace. A. as B. like (Unit 116)
14.6 They are very kind to me. They treat me __________ their own son. A. like I am B. as if I am C. as if I was D. as if I were (Unit 117)
14.7 I'll be in London next week. I hope to see Tom __________ there. A. while I will be B. while I am C. during my visit D. during I am (Unit 118)
14.8 Fred is away at the moment. I don't know exactly when he's coming back but I'm sure he'll be back __________ Monday. A. by B. until (Unit 119)


15.1 I'll be at home __________ Friday morning. You can phone me then. A. at B. on C. in (Unit 120)
15.2 I'm going away __________ the end of January. A. at B. on C. in (Unit 121)
15.3 When we were in Italy, we spent a few days __________ Venice. A. at B. to C. in (Unit 122, 124)
15.4 Our flat is __________ the second floor of the building. A. at B. on C. in (Unit 123)
15.5 I saw Jack __________ a concert last Saturday. A. at B. on C. in (Unit 124)
15.6 What time did they __________ the hotel? A. arrive to B. arrive at C. arrive in D. get to E get in) (Unit 125)
15.7 Tom's away at the moment. He's __________ holiday in France. A. at B. on C. in D. for (Unit 126)
15.8 We travelled __________ 6.45 train, which arrived at 8.30. A. in the B. on the C. by the D. by (Unit 127)
15.9 Have you read any books __________ Agatha Christie? A. of B. from C. by (Unit 127)
15.10 The accident was my fault, so I had to pay for the damage __________ the other car. A. of B. for C. to D. on E. at (Unit 128)
15.11 Why were you so unfriendly __________ Tessa? Have you had an argument with her? A. of B. for C. to D. with (Unit 129)
15.12 I'm not very good __________ repairing things. A. at B. for C. in D. about (Unit 130)
15.13 I don't understand this sentence. Can you __________? A. explain to me this word B. explain me this word C. explain this word to me (Unit 131)
15.14 If you're worried about the problem, you should do something __________ it. A. for B. about C. against D. with (Unit 132)
15.15 'Who is Tom Madely?' 'I've no idea. I've never heard __________ him.' A. about B. from C. after D. of (Unit 133)
15.16 'What time will you arrive?' 'I don't know. It depends __________ the traffic.' A. of B. for C. from D. on (Unit 134)
15.17 I prefer tea __________ coffee. A. to B. than C. against D. over (Unit 135, 58)
15.18 They gave me a form and told me to __________. A. fill in B. fill it in C. fill in it (Unit 136)



Date: 2015-01-02; view: 1304

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