How to teach vocabulary at school. We should distinguish productive and receptive lexis.
We understand many more ww than we use in our everyday life. E.g. in this lecture you have heard such ww as: a sentence pattern, to establish, bury. I am sure that you didnТt use them during the past two weeks. So they are receptive lexis i.e. set of ww we recognise and understand but donТt use in everyday speech. And the ww that are used actively for communication, which are part of your everyday English are productive lexis. We shall discuss how to present productive lexis.
Remember: When teaching vocabulary it is important to teach meaning, use, form and pronunciation.
There are three stages in teaching vocabulary:
1. presentation or explanation
2. practicing or consolidation
1. Presentation or explanation
There are two ways of explaining the meaning of the word: direct way and translation.
Direct way of presenting the words brings the learner into direct contact with them without using his native language. The direct way is used when concrete words denoting concrete things, actions and qualities are introduced. The teacher uses objects, pictures, movements, gestures and mimes to presenting the words directly without using the studentsТ native language. Another technique of presenting the words is through context, synonyms, antonyms, definitions.
But remember: we should not only have the students repeat the word. We should point out difficult sounds and word stress. [w] [ὴ] Where is the stress in this word?
The second way of presenting the word: a direct translation of the word:
Wellingtons Ц высокие резиновые сапоги
Translating a new word can be useful. It is often the simplest and clearest way of showing what a word means. When the teacher presents words denoting abstract notions, he uses a direct translation of the word. There are two variants of translation:
1. Common (proper) translation: joy Ц радость.
2. Translation-interpretation: to go Ц ехать, идти, лететь- (движение от говор€щему), to come - ехать, идти, лететь- (движение к говор€щему).
Translation is economical from the point of view of time; it ensures the exact comprehension of the meaning of the words presented. The choice of the way of introducing a new word depends on the following factors:
1. Psychological factors: studentsТ age: the younger the students are the better is the chance for the use of the direct way; studentsТ intelligence: the brighter the child the more direct the way;
2. Pedagogical factors: the stage of teaching; the size of the class: in overcrowded classes it is better to use translation because it is economical, more time is used for consolidation of vocabulary; the time limit: when the teacher is pressed for the time he turns to translation
3. the qualification of the teacher: the use of the direct way demands much skill on the part of the teacher.
Rules for the teacher:
1. Introduce words in sentence patterns in different situations of intercourse.
2. While introducing a word, pronounce it yourself in a context, ask students to pronounce it both individually and in unison in a context too.
3. In teaching words it is necessary to help the learners to practise, learn, remember, recall and use the ww.
To remember better the students should do various exercises. Constant use of anew word is the best way of learning it.
For this reason two groups of exercises may be recommended for vocabulary assimilation:
Croup I: Exercises for developing studentsТ skills in choosing the proper word.
Group II: Exercises for forming skills in using the word in a sentence.
Group III: Creative exercises.
Ø Exercises in finding the necessary words among those suggested.
e.g. 1. Pick out the ww size:
red, big, good, great, small, green.
2. Choose the right word: 1.The horse is a (wild, domestic) animal.
3. Fill in the blanks: They saw a little..... in the forest.
4. Play a guessing game: T or S thinks of a word Ц others guess